Lecture 19

excerpts from

DAEDALUS

or 

Science and the Future

A paper read to the Heretics, Cambridge, on February 4, 1923

by 

J. B. S. Haldane (1892-1964)

…It is a fairly safe prophecy that in 50 years light will cost about
a fiftieth of its present price, and there will be no more night in our
cities.  The alternation of day and night is a check on the freedom
of human activity which must go the way of other spatial and temporal checks. 
In the long run I think that all that applied physics can do for us is
abolish these checks.  It enables us to possess more, travel more,
and communicate more.  I shall not attempt to predict in detail the
future developments of transport and communication.  They are only
limited by the velocity of light.  We are working towards a condition
when any two persons on earth will be able to be completely present to
one another in not more than 1/24 of a second.  We shall never reach
it, but that is the limit which we shall approach indefinitely.

Developments in this direction are tending to bring mankind more and
more together, to render life more and more complex, artificial, and rich
in possibilities–to increase indefinitely man’s powers for good and evil….

As for the supplies of mechanical power, it is axiomatic that the exhaustion
of our coal and oil-fields is a matter of centuries only.  As it has
often been assumed that their exhaustion would lead to the collapse of
industrial civilization, I may perhaps be pardoned if I give some of the
reasons which lead me to doubt this proposition.

Water-power is not, I think, a probable substitute, on account of its
small quantity, seasonal fluctuation, and sporadic distribution. 
It may perhaps, however, shift the centre of industrial gravity to well-watered
mountainous tracts such as the Himalayan foothills, British Columbia, and
Armenia.  Ultimately we shall have to tap those intermittent but inexhaustible
sources of power, the wind and the sunlight.  The problem is simply
one of storing their energy in a form as convenient as coal or petrol. 
If a windmill in one’s back garden could produce a hundredweight of coal
daily (and it can produce its equivalent in energy), our coalmines would
be shut down to-morrow.  Even to-morrow a cheap, foolproof, and durable
storage battery may be invented, which will enable us to transform the
intermittent energy of the wind into continuous electric power.

Personally, I think that four hundred years hence the power question
in England may be solved somewhat as follows:  The country will be
covered with rows of metallic windmills working electric motors which in
their turn supply current at a very high voltage to great electric mains. 
At suitable distances, there will be great power stations where during
windy weather the surplus power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition
of water into oxygen and hydrogen.  These gasses will be liquefied,
and stored in vast vacuum jacketed reservoirs, probably sunk in the ground. 
If these reservoirs are sufficiently large, the loss of liquid due to leakage
inwards of heat will not be great; thus the proportion evaporating daily
from a reservoir 100 yards square by 60 feet deep would not be 1/1000 of
that lost from a tank measuring two feet each way.  In times of calm,
the gasses will be recombined in explosion motors working dynamos which
produce electrical energy once more, or more probably in oxidation cells. 
Liquid hydrogen is weight for weight the most efficient known method of
storing energy, as it gives about three times as much heat per pound as
petrol.  On the other hand it is very light, and bulk for bulk has
only one third of the efficiency of petrol.  This will not, however,
detract from its use in aeroplanes, where weight is more important than
bulk.  These huge reservoirs of liquified gasses will enable wind
energy to be stored, so that it can be expended for industry, transportation,
heating and lighting, as desired.  The initial costs will be very
considerable, but the running expenses less than those of our present system. 
Among its more obvious advantages will be the fact that energy will be
as cheap in one part of the country as another, so that industry will be
greatly decentralized; and that no smoke or ash will be produced….

The chemical or physical inventor is always a Prometheus.  There
is no great invention, from fire to flying, which has not been hailed as
an insult to some god.  But if every physical and chemical invention
is a blasphemy, every biological invention is a perversion.  There
is hardly one which, on first being brought to the notice of an observer
from any nation which has not previously heard of their existence, would
not appear to him as indecent and unnatural….

…I am going to suggest a few obvious developments which seem probable
in the present state of biological science, without assuming any great
new generalizations of the type of Darwinism.  I have the very best
precedents for introducing a myth at this point, so perhaps I may be excused
if I reproduce some extracts from an essay on the influence of biology
on history during the 20th century which will (it is hoped) be read by
a rather stupid undergraduate member of this university to his supervisor
during his first term 150 years hence.

“As early as the first decade of the twentieth century we find
a conscious attempt at the application of biology to politics in the so-called
eugenic movement.  A number of earnest persons, having discovered
the existence of biology, attempted to apply it in its then very crude
condition to the production of a race of super-men, and in certain countries
managed to carry a good deal of legislation.  They appear to have
managed to prevent the transmission of a good deal of syphilis, insanity,
and the like, and they certainly succeeded in producing the most violent
opposition and hatred amongst the classes whom they somewhat gratuitously
regarded as undesirable parents.  (There was even a rebellion in Nebraska). 
However, they undoubtably prepared public opinion for what was to come,
and so far served a useful purpose.  Far more important was the progress
in medicine which practically abolished infectious diseases in those countries
which were prepared to tolerate the requisite amount of state interference
in private life, and finally, after the [League of Nations’] ordinance
of 1958, all over the world; though owing to Hindu opposition, parts of
India were still quite unhealthy up to 1980 or so.

But from a wider point of view the most important biological work in
the first third of the century was in experimental zoology and botany. 
When we consider that in 1912 Morgan had located several Mendelian factors
in the nucleus of Drosophila, and modified its sex-ratio, while Marmorek
had taught a harmless bacillus to kill guinea-pigs, and finally in 1913
Brachet had grown rabbit embryos in serum for some days, it is remarkable
how little the scientific workers of that time, and a fortiori the general
public, seem to have foreseen the practical bearing of such results.

As a matter of fact it was not until 1940 that Selkovski invented the
purple alga Porphyrococcus fixator which was to have so great an
effect on the world’s history.  In the 50 years before this date the
world’s average wheat yield per hectare had been approximately doubled,
partly by the application of various chemical manures, but most of all
by the results of systematic crossing work with different races; there
was however little prospect of further advance on any of these lines.
Porphyrococcus
is an enormously efficient nitrogen-fixer and will grow in almost any climate
where there are water and traces of potash and phosphates in the soil,
obtaining its nitrogen from the air.  It has about the effect in four
days that a crop of vetches would have had in a year.  It could not,
of course, have been produced in the course of nature, as its immediate
ancestors would only grow in artificial media and could not have survived
outside a laboratory.  Wherever nitrogen was the principal limiting
factor to plant growth it doubled the yield of wheat, and quadrupled the
value of grass land for grazing purposes.  The enormous fall in food
prices and the ruin of purely agricultural states was of course one of
the chief causes of the disastrous events of 1943 and 1944.  The food
glut was also greatly accentuated when in 1942 the Q strain of Porphyrococcus
escaped into the sea and multiplied with enormous rapidity.  Indeed
for two months the surface of the tropical Atlantic set to a jelly, with
disastrous results to the weather of Europe.  When certain of the
plankton organisms developed ferments capable of digesting it the increase
of the fish population of the seas was so great as to make fish the universal
food that it is now, and to render even England self-supporting in respect
of food….

It was of course as a result of its invasion by Porphyrococcus
that the sea assumed the intense purple colour which seems so natural to
us, but which so distressed the more aesthetically minded of our great
grand-parents who witnessed the change.  It is certainly curious to
us to read of the sea as having been green or blue….

It was in 1951 that Dupont and Schwarz produced the first ectogenetic
child.  As early as 1901 Heape had transferred embryo rabbits from
one female to another, in 1925 Haldane had grown embryonic rats in serum
for ten days, but had failed to carry the process to its conclusion, and
it was not till 1946 that Clark succeeded with the pig, using Kehlmann’s
solution as medium.  Dupont and Schwarz obtained a fresh ovary from
a woman who was the victim of an aeroplane accident, and kept it living
in their medium for five years.  They obtained several eggs from it
and fertilized them successfully, but the problem of nutrition and support
of the embryo was more difficult, and was only solved in the fourth year. 
Now that the technique is fully developed, we can take an ovary from a
woman, and keep it growing in a suitable fluid for as long as twenty years,
producing a fresh ovum each month, of which 90 per cent can be fertilized,
and the embryos grown successfully for nine months, and then brought out
into the air.  Schwarz never got such good results, but the news of
his first success caused an unprecedented sensation throughout the entire
world, for the birthrate was already less than the death rate in most civilised
countries.  France was the first country to adopt ectogenesis officially,
and by 1968 was producing 60,000 children annually by this method….

As we know ectogenesis is now universal, and in this country less than
30 per cent of children are now born of woman.  The effect on human
psychology and social life of the separation of sexual love and reproduction
which was begun in the 19th century and completed in the 20th is by no
means wholly satisfactory.  The old family life had certainly a good
deal to commend it, and although nowadays we bring on lactation in women
by injection of placentin as a routine, and thus conserve much of what
was best in the former instinctive cycle, we must admit that in certain
respects our great grandparents had the advantage of us.  On the other
hand it is generally admitted that the effects of selection have more than
counterbalanced these evils.  The small proportion of men and women
who are selected as ancestors for the next generation are so undoubtedly
superior to the average that the advance in each generation in any single
respect, from the increased output of first-class music to the decreased
convictions for theft, is very startling.  Had it not been for ectogenesis
there can be little doubt that civilisation would have collapsed within
a measurable time owing to the greater fertility of the less desirable
members of the population in almost all countries.

It is perhaps fortunate that the process of becoming an ectogenetic

m o t h e r o f t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n i n v o l v e s a n o p e r a t i o n w h i c h i s s o m e w h a t u n p l e a s a n t ,

t h o u g h n o w n o l o n g e r d i s f i g u r i n g o r d a n g e r o u s , a n d n e v e r p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y

i n j u r i o u s , a n d i s t h e r e f o r e a n h o n o u r b u t b y n o m e a n s a p l e a s u r e . &n b s p ;

H a d t h i s n o t b e e n t h e c a s e , i t i s p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e t h a t p o p u l a r o p p o s i t i o n

w o u l d h a v e p r o v e d t o o s t r o n g f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n i s t m o v e m e n t . &n b s p ; A s i t

w a s t h e o p p o s i t i o n w a s v e r y f i e r c e , a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e n o u g h t h i s

c o u n t r y o n l y a d o p t e d i t s p r e s e n t r a t h e r s t r i n g e n t s t a n d a r d o f s e l e c t i o n

a g e n e r a t i o n l a t e t h a n G e r m a n y , t h o u g h i t i s n o w p e r h a p s m o r e a d v a n c e d

t h a n a n y o t h e r c o u n t r y i n t h i s r e s p e c t . &n b s p ; T h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h o r o u g h – g o i n g

s e l e c t i o n , h a v e , h o w e v e r , p r o v e d t o b e e n o r m o u s . &n b s p ; T h e q u e s t i o n o f

t h e i d e a l s e x r a t i o i s s t i l l a m a t t e r o f v i o l e n t d i s c u s s i o n , b u t t h e m o d e r n

r e a c t i o n t o w a r d s e q u a l i t y i s c e r t a i n l y s t r o n g . ” / b l o c k q u o t e >

O u r e s s a y i s t w o u l d t h e n p e r h a p s g o o n t o d i s c u s s s o m e f a r m o r e r a d i c a l

a d v a n c e s m a d e a b o u t 1 9 9 0 , b u t I h a v e o n l y q u o t e d h i s a c c o u n t o f t h e e a r l i e r

a p p l i c a t i o n s o f b i o l o g y . &n b s p ; T h e s e c o n d a p p e a r s t o m e t o b e n e i t h e r i m p o s s i b l e

n o r i m p r o b a b l e , b u t i t h a s t h o s e f e a t u r e s w h i c h w e s a w a b o v e t o b e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c

o f b i o l o g i c a l i n v e n t i o n s . &n b s p ; I f r e p r o d u c t i o n i s o n c e c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e d

f r o m s e x u a l l o v e m a n k i n d w i l l b e f r e e i n a n a l t o g e t h e r n e w s e n s e . &n b s p ;

A t p r e s e n t t h e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s c h a n g i n g s l o w l y a c c o r d i n g t o q u i t e

u n k n o w n l a w s . &n b s p ; T h e p r o b l e m o f p o l i t i c s i s t o f i n d i n s t i t u t i o n s s u i t a b l e

t o i t . &n b s p ; I n t h e f u t u r e p e r h a p s i t m a y b e p o s s i b l e b y s e l e c t i v e b r e e d i n g

t o c h a n g e c h a r a c t e r a s q u i c k l y a s i n s t i t u t i o n s . &n b s p ; I c a n f o r e s e e t h e

e l e c t i o n p l a c a r d s o f 3 0 0 y e a r s h e n c e , i f s u c h q u a i n t p o l i t i c a l m e t h o d s

s u r v i v e , w h i c h i s p e r h a p s i m p r o b a b l e , ” V o t e f o r S m i t h a n d m o r e m u s i c i a n s ” ,

” V o t e f o r O ‘ L e a r y a n d m o r e g i r l s ” , o r p e r h a p s f i n a l l y ” V o t e f o r M a c p h e r s o n

a n d a p r e h e n s i l e t a i l f o r y o u r g r e a t – g r a n d c h i l d r e n ‘ ‘ . &n b s p ; W e c a n a l r e a d y

a l t e r a n i m a l s p e c i e s t o a n e n o r m o u s e x t e n t , a n d i t s e e m s o n l y a q u e s t i o n

o f t i m e b e f o r e w e s h a l l b e a b l e t o a p p l y t h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e s t o o u r o w n . . . . / t d >

/ t r >

/ t a b l e > / c e n t e r >

c e n t e r > t a b l e B O R D E R = 0 C E L L S P A C I N G = 0 C E L L P A D D I N G = 5 W I D T H = ” 6 0 0 ” B G C O L O R = ” # F F B F 5 6 ” >

t r b g c o l o r = ” # C C C C 9 9 ” >

t d v a l i g n = ” t o p ” > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 5 2 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d v a l i g n = ” t o p ” > p > A m n i o c e n t e s i s a l l o w s f e t u s t o b e c h e c k e d f o r a b n o r m a l i t i e s / t d >

/ t r >

t r b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 5 3 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > S t r u c t u r e o f D N A d e s c r i b e d / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # C C C C 9 9 ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 5 5 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > U l t r a s o u n d i n t r o d u c e d i n o b s t e t r i c s / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 6 0 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > O r a l c o n t r a c e p t i v e i n t r o d u c e d / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # C C C C 9 9 ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 6 3 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > J . B . S . H a l d a n e c o i n s &q u o t ; c l o n e &q u o t ; , f r o m G r e e k w o r d e m > k l o n / e m > , m e a n i n g &q u o t ; t w i g &q u o t ; / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 6 8 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > N e w f e r t i l i t y d r u g s c a u s e B r i t i s h w o m a n t o g i v e b i r t h t o s e x t u p l e t s / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # C C C C 9 9 ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 6 9 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > S i n g l e g e n e i s o l a t e d f o r f i r s t t i m e / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 7 3 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > p > R e c o m b i n a n t D N A t e c h n i q u e d e v e l o p e d ( s t a r t o f g e n e t i c e n g i n e e r i n g )

/ t d >

/ t r >

/ t a b l e >

/ c e n t e r >

c e n t e r > t a b l e B O R D E R = 0 C E L L S P A C I N G = 0 C E L L P A D D I N G = 5 W I D T H = ” 6 0 0 ” B G C O L O R = ” # F F A F 1 8 ” >

t r b g c o l o r = ” # 9 9 9 9 6 6 ” >

t d >

c e n t e r > i m g S R C = ” t i m e t e s t t u b e 2 b . j p g ” B O R D E R = 0 h e i g h t = 5 2 7 w i d t h = 4 0 0 > / c e n t e r > / t d >

t d >

c e n t e r > i m g S R C = ” l o u i s e b r o w n a . j p g ” B O R D E R = 3 h e i g h t = 2 3 7 w i d t h = 1 7 0 >

p > L o u i s e B r o w n

b r > b o r n : &n b s p ; &n b s p ; 2 5 J u l y 1 9 7 8 / c e n t e r >

p > b r >

b r >

b r >

p >

p > O v e r t h r e e m i l l i o n I V F i n f a n t s b o r n ( 1 9 7 8 – 2 0 0 6 ) / t d >

/ t r >

/ t a b l e > / c e n t e r >

c e n t e r > t a b l e B O R D E R = 0 C E L L S P A C I N G = 0 C E L L P A D D I N G = 5 W I D T H = ” 6 0 0 ” B G C O L O R = ” # F F B F 5 6 ” >

t r b g c o l o r = ” # C C C C 9 9 ” >

t d v a l i g n = ” t o p ” > s t r o n g > f o n t c o l o r = ” E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 8 1 / f o n t > / s t r o n g > / t d >

t d > E m b r y o n i c s t e m c e l l s f i r s t i s o l a t e d i n m i c e / t d >

/ t r >

t r b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d v a l i g n = ” t o p ” > s t r o n g > f o n t c o l o r = ” E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 8 8 / f o n t > / s t r o n g > / t d >

t d > R U 4 8 6 m a r k e t e d / t d >

/ t r >

t r b g c o l o r = ” # C C C C 9 9 ” >

t d v a l i g n = ” t o p ” > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 9 0 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > F i r s t s u r g e r y o n b a b y i n i t s m o t h e r ‘ s w o m b

b r >

H u m a n G e n o m e P r o j e c t b e g u n / t d >

/ t r >

t r b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d v a l i g n = ” t o p ” > s t r o n g > f o n t c o l o r = ” E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 9 5 / f o n t > / s t r o n g > / t d >

t d > E m b r y o n i c s t e m c e l l s f i r s t i s o l a t e d i n p r i m a t e s / t d >

/ t r >

t r b g c o l o r = ” # C C C C 9 9 ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 1 9 9 6 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > F i r s t m a m m a l c l o n e d – – D o l l y , t h e s h e e p / t d >

/ t r >

t r b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d v a l i g n = ” t o p ” > s t r o n g > f o n t c o l o r = ” E D 1 8 1 E ” > 2 0 0 1 / f o n t > / s t r o n g > / t d >

t d > L i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d o n f u n d i n g f o r s t e m c e l l r e s e a r c h

b r >

R e s e a r c h e r s c l a i m t o h a v e c l o n e d f i r s t h u m a n e m b r y o – – r e s u l t s q u e s t i o n e d / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # C C C C 9 9 ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 2 0 0 3 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > p > F i r s t c l o n e d m a m m a l d i e s

b r > H u m a n G e n o m e P r o j e c t c o m p l e t e d / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 2 0 0 4 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > H w a n g W o o S u k a n n o u n c e s s u c c e s s f u l c l o n i n g o f h u m a n e m b r y o f o r u s e a s n o n – c o n t r o v e r s i a l s t e m c e l l s o u r c e / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # C C C C 9 9 ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 2 0 0 5 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > M a y – – H w a n g a n n o u n c e s s t r e a m l i n e d c l o n i n g p r o c e d u r e / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # C C C C 9 9 ” >

t d > &n b s p ; / t d >

t d > N o v e m b e r – – d i s c o v e r i e s f o u n d t o h a v e b e e n b a s e d o n f a l s e c l a i m s / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # E D 1 8 1 E ” > 2 0 0 7 / f o n t > / b > / t d >

t d > J u n e – – J a p a n e s e s c i e n t i s t s r e p r o g r a m m o u s e s k i n c e l l s t o b e h a v e l i k e e m b r y o n i c s t e m c e l l s / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d > &n b s p ; / t d >

t d > J u l y – – f i r s t I V M * b a b y b o r n i n C a n a d a

( * i n v i t r o m a t u r a t i o n – – f e r t i l i z e d e g g i s d e v e l o p e d i n l a b , t h e n f r o z e n b e f o r e i m p l a n t a t i o n ) / t d >

/ t r >

t r V A L I G N = T O P b g c o l o r = ” # F F F F C C ” >

t d > &n b s p ; / t d >

t d > N o v e m b e r – – s c i e n t i s t s i n M a d i s o n W I r e p r o g r a m h u m a n

s k i n c e l l s t o b e h a v e l i k e e m b r y o n i c s t e m c e l l s / t d >

/ t r >

/ t a b l e >

/ c e n t e r >

c e n t e r > t a b l e B O R D E R = 0 C E L L S P A C I N G = 0 C E L L P A D D I N G = 5 C O L S = 1 W I D T H = ” 6 0 0 ” B G C O L O R = ” # F 6 3 F 1 B ” >

t r >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 9 9 ” > p > W i t h a l i t t l e m a r k e t i n g . . . t r a d i t i o n a l r e p r o d u c t i o n m a y b e g i n t o s e e m a n t i q u a t e d , i f n o t d o w n r i g h t i r r e s p o n s i b l e . &n b s p ; O n e d a y , p e o p l e m a y v i e w s e x a s e s s e n t i a l l y r e c r e a t i o n a l , a n d c o n c e p t i o n a s s o m e t h i n g b e s t d o n e i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y . / p >

b l o c k q u o t e >

b l o c k q u o t e >

p > – – G r e g o r y S t o c k ( e m > R e d e s i g n i n g H u m a n s / e m > , 2 0 0 2 )

/ p >

/ b l o c k q u o t e >

/ b l o c k q u o t e > / t d >

/ t r >

t r >

t d >

I n M a r y S h e l l e y &r s q u o ; s n o v e l , F r a n k e n s t e i n ( 1 8 1 6 ) , V i c t o r F r a n k e n s t e i n w a r n s R o b e r t W a l t o n :

b l o c k q u o t e >

p > L e a r n f r o m m e , i f n o t b y m y p r e c e p t s , a t l e a s t b y m y e x a m p l e , h o w d a n g e r o u s i s t h e a c q u i r e m e n t o f k n o w l e d g e . . . / p >

/ b l o c k q u o t e > p > s t r o n g > I s k n o w l e d g e i n h e r e n t l y d a n g e r o u s ? / s t r o n g > / p >

p > s t r o n g > C a n w e l e a r n t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n w i s d o m a n d c l e v e r n e s s ? / s t r o n g > / p >

/ t d >

/ t r >

/ t a b l e > / c e n t e r >

c e n t e r > t a b l e B O R D E R = 0 C E L L S P A C I N G = 0 C E L L P A D D I N G = 0 C O L S = 1 W I D T H = ” 6 0 0 ” >

t r >

t d > &n b s p ; / t d >

/ t r >

t r >

t d > i m g s r c = ” e s c h e r l i n e h . j p g ” w i d t h = ” 6 0 0 ” h e i g h t = ” 2 4 ” >

c e n t e r > t a b l e B O R D E R = 0 C E L L S P A C I N G = 0 C E L L P A D D I N G = 1 0 C O L S = 1 W I D T H = ” 6 0 0 ” B G C O L O R = ” # B 2 B 4 5 9 ” >

t r >

t d B G C O L O R = ” # 9 9 9 9 4 C ” > b > f o n t c o l o r = ” # F 6 3 F 1 B ” > f o n t s i z e = + 2 > G o t o : / f o n t > / f o n t > / b > / t d >

/ t r >

t r >

t d >

u l >

l i >

a h r e f = ” i n d e x . h t m l ” > H i s t o r y 6 0

H o m e P a g e / a > / l i >

/ u l >

u l >

l i >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 1 0 a . h t m l ” > X – r a y s

a n d R a d i u m i n t h e N e w s / a > ( f o u r c o n t e m p o r y n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s d e s c r i b i n g

t h e s e n e w d i s c o v e r i e s ) ; / l i >

/ u l >

u l >

l i >

i > a h r e f = ” w e e k 1 0 f . h t m l ” > T h e E f f e c t o f W o r l d W a r I o n C o o p e r a t i o n a m o n g E u r o p e a n S c i e n t i s t s / a > : &n b s p ;

P r o g r e s s i n t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f A t o m i c T h e o r y d u r i n g t h e W a r / i > ( 1 9 8 7 )

b y B a r b a r a

J . B e c k e r ; / l i >

/ u l >

u l >

l i >

i > a h r e f = ” w e e k 1 0 g . h t m l ” > N a t u r e P r e s u p p o s e s a S p i r i t u a l D i s p o s i t i o n / a > / i > ( 1 9 3 6 ) b y B r u n o

T h &u u m l ; r i n g ( 1 9 0 5 – 1 9 8 9 ) ; / l i >

/ u l >

u l >

l i >

i > a h r e f = ” w e e k 1 0 h . h t m l ” > R e s p e c t f o r F a c t s a n d A p t i t u d e f o r E x a c t O b s e r v a t i o n R e s i d e i n t h e N o r d i c

R a c e / a > / i > ( 1 9 3 4 ) b y J o h a n n e s

S t a r k ( 1 8 7 4 – 1 9 5 1 ) ; / l i >

/ u l >

u l >

l i >

i > a h r e f = ” w e e k 1 0 b . h t m l ” > R e s e a r c h i n G e r m a n y o n t h e T e c h n i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n o f A t o m i c E n e r g y / a >

/ i > ( 1 9 5 3 )

b y W e r n e r

H e i s e n b e r g ( 1 9 0 1 – 1 9 7 6 ) ; / l i >

/ u l >

u l >

l i >

i > a h r e f = ” w e e k 1 0 c . h t m l ” > T h e R e s t l e s s U n i v e r s e / a > / i > ( 1 9 5 1 ) b y M a x

B o r n ( 1 8 8 2 – 1 9 7 0 ) ; / l i >

/ u l >

u l >

l i >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 1 0 d . h t m l ” > ” T h e C r e a t i v e M i n d ” / a > , i n i > S c i e n c e a n d H u m a n V a l u e s / i > ( 1 9 6 5 ) b y

J a c o b

B r o n o w s k i ( 1 9 0 8 – 1 9 7 4 ) ; a n d / l i >

/ u l >

u l >

l i > i > a h r e f = ” w e e k 1 0 e . h t m l ” > R i d d l e y W a l k e r / a > / i > ( 1 9 8 0 ) b y R u s s e l l

H o b a n ( 1 9 2 5 – &n b s p ; &n b s p ; ) . / l i >

/ u l >

/ t d >

/ t r >

t r >

t d B G C O L O R = ” # 9 9 9 9 4 C ” >

c e n t e r >

t a b l e B O R D E R = 0 C E L L S P A C I N G = 0 C E L L P A D D I N G = 1 W I D T H = ” 1 0 0 % ” B G C O L O R = ” # F F F F B 3 ” >

t r >

t d w i d t h = ” 1 4 8 ” >

c e n t e r >

b > W e e k l y R e a d i n g s / b >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d W I D T H = ” 4 1 ” >

c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 1 . h t m l ” > 1 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d W I D T H = ” 4 1 ” >

c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 2 . h t m l ” > 2 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d W I D T H = ” 4 1 ” >

c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 3 . h t m l ” > 3 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d W I D T H = ” 4 1 ” >

c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 4 . h t m l ” > 4 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d W I D T H = ” 4 1 ” >

c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 5 . h t m l ” > 5 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d W I D T H = ” 4 1 ” >

c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 6 . h t m l ” > 6 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d W I D T H = ” 4 1 ” >

c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 7 . h t m l ” > 7 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d W I D T H = ” 4 1 ” >

c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 8 . h t m l ” > 8 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d W I D T H = ” 4 1 ” >

c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 9 . h t m l ” > 9 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d W I D T H = ” 4 1 ” B G C O L O R = ” # F F B F 5 6 ” >

c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” w e e k 1 0 . h t m l ” > 1 0 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

/ t r >

t r b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 6 6 ” >

t d r o w s p a n = ” 2 ” > c e n t e r >

b > L e c t u r e N o t e s / b >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d w i d t h = ” 4 1 ” v a l i g n = ” t o p ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 1 . h t m l ” > 1 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d w i d t h = ” 4 1 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 3 . h t m l ” > 3 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d w i d t h = ” 4 1 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 5 . h t m l ” > 5 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d w i d t h = ” 4 1 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 7 . h t m l ” > 7 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d w i d t h = ” 4 1 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 9 . h t m l ” > 9 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d w i d t h = ” 4 1 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 1 1 . h t m l ” > 1 1 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d w i d t h = ” 4 1 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 1 3 . h t m l ” > 1 3 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d w i d t h = ” 4 1 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 1 5 . h t m l ” > 1 5 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d w i d t h = ” 4 1 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 1 7 . h t m l ” > 1 7 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d w i d t h = ” 4 1 ” b g c o l o r = ” # F F 9 9 3 3 ” > c e n t e r >

b > 1 9 / b >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

/ t r >

t r >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 6 6 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 2 . h t m l ” > 2 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 6 6 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 4 . h t m l ” > 4 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 6 6 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 6 . h t m l ” > 6 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 6 6 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 8 . h t m l ” > 8 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 6 6 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 1 0 . h t m l ” > 1 0 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 6 6 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 1 2 . h t m l ” > 1 2 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 6 6 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 1 4 . h t m l ” > 1 4 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 6 6 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 1 6 . h t m l ” > 1 6 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F C C 6 6 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 1 8 . h t m l ” > 1 8 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

t d b g c o l o r = ” # F F 9 9 3 3 ” > c e n t e r >

a h r e f = ” l e c t u r e 2 0 . h t m l ” > 2 0 / a >

/ c e n t e r > / t d >

/ t r >

t r >

t d > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > s t r o n g > Q u o d l i b e t s / s t r o n g > / d i v > / t d >

t d > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > a h r e f = ” q u o d l i b e t 1 . h t m l ” > 1 / a > / d i v > / t d >

t d > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > a h r e f = ” q u o d l i b e t 2 . h t m l ” > 2 / a > / d i v > / t d >

t d > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > a h r e f = ” q u o d l i b e t 3 . h t m l ” > 3 / a > / d i v > / t d >

t d > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > a h r e f = ” q u o d l i b e t 4 . h t m l ” > 4 / a > / d i v > / t d >

t d > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > – – / d i v > / t d >

t d > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > a h r e f = ” q u o d l i b e t 5 . h t m l ” > 5 / a > / d i v > / t d >

t d > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > a h r e f = ” q u o d l i b e t 6 . h t m l ” > 6 / a > / d i v > / t d >

t d > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > a h r e f = ” q u o d l i b e t 7 . h t m l ” > 7 / a > / d i v > / t d >

t d > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > a h r e f = ” q u o d l i b e t 8 . h t m l ” > 8 / a > / d i v > / t d >

t d B G C O L O R = ” # F F B F 5 6 ” > d i v a l i g n = ” c e n t e r ” > – – / d i v > / t d >

/ t r >

/ t a b l e >

/ c e n t e r >

/ t d >

/ t r >

/ t a b l e > i m g s r c = ” e s c h e r l i n e i . j p g ” w i d t h = ” 6 0 0 ” h e i g h t = ” 2 4 ” > / c e n t e r > / t d >

/ t r >

/ t a b l e > / c e n t e r >

/ b o d y >

/ h t m l >

Trả lời

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