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Niigata AirNpioigrtata Airport CENTRAL HONSHU Niigata Niigata Must Sees 10 Nagoya Shirone Shirone 1 Yokohama 11 Shizuoka 2 Kamakura 12 Inuyama N I I G A TNAI I G A T A 3 Mount Fuji and the 13 Shokawa Valley NagaokaNagaoka 14 Gifu Fuji Five Lakes 15 Matsumoto Ojiya Ojiya 4 Takayama 16 Nagano 5 Kanazawa 17 Kamikochi Muika Muika 18 Chichibu-Tama-Kai Experience More 6 Narita National Park 7 Kawagoe 8 Hakone 19 Eihei-ji 9 Izu Peninsula 20 Noto Peninsula Shirane-sanShirane-san Nikko TO C H I GTOI C H I GDIaigo Daigo 8,458 ft (2,587,845m8)ft (2,578 m) Nikko G U NM AG UN M A N O R T HNEORRNT H UEtRsuNnomUiytasunomiya Hitachi Hitachi Mito ShibukawSahibukawa HONSHOUNSHUMashiko Mashiko MaebashiMaebashi p294 p294 Mito TakasakiTakasaki Kasama Kasama Isesaki Isesaki omioka Tomioka Ota Ota ShimodatSehimodate Koga Koga KumagayKaumagaya I B A R A KI BI A R AHKokIota Hokota TsuchiuraTsuchiura SAITA MSAA I TA MA Moriya MoriyaInashiki Inashiki Ageo Ageo ake Chichibu Chichibu CHICHIBCUH-ICHIBKUA-WAGKOAEWAGOE Kashiwa Kashiwa TAMA-KTAIMA-KAI Urawa Urawa AA)oTMfFTIuOAIHVNNEFNEAYuAFjAALLiyUSTAOoMPTFJHIOskAKIOhAIHutIVEsiRNtdNuEFaSEaKAkumAFijLLiSayUSAaOHoPgJHOskKAKaIhautcIEsimRAtdhuaSaKNiikTmhoiOajSAairaHGaKgKaaYAcmAOhWNiiThoAKOajAiarKwGaKaawYAgaOWuscaAhKkiTaYKiwOaOpawKKg7aOu8YscHATaOhAoikrAiTdkYpiyaoOMOocprthIKKA7niOt8YCeFHATrhOAonuiriAdkanbpytaaoMNaioocrbnthIAAanaistIRlcCehFhrIhinuTiihanbACtaaNairoHbanAaaIsIRlBchMhIiAoTihbATCaaoNArrHgaaiaarrpIniBoteMarAtoInbTtaoeAANrgrasinaararapnihtoteiiarotnInatCleAhrsnoaashthiioi naCl hoshi yaFMUOJUI NTOFMdUaOwJUIHaNraadTOHadinraoawtsHaurakaKdaHaAinrMoatAsuKkKUaARFMuAjAisaKwYUoakRFouAsjuiskaawYoakFousKtuitsksauaBraozsuFouKtitssauBraozsuo Isumi Isumi P a c iPfai c i f i c O c e aO nc e a n uji Fuji HAKONHE AKONE Miura Miura PeninsuPlaeninsulaKatsuura Katsuura muimzuazu Numazu Atami Atami KamogawKaamogawa Ito Ito TateyamaTateyama oi Toi Izu Izu Shuzenji ShuzeAnmjiagi-san Amagi-san 4,613 ft (1,440,61m3)ft (1,406 m) IZU PENIZINUSPUELNAINSUOLsAhima IsOlasnhdima Island Mihara-yamMaihara-yama Higashi-IzHuigashi-Izu 2,487 ft (7582,m48)7 ft (758 m) Shimoda Shimoda ro-zaki Iro-zaki Nii-jima Nii-jima CENTRALCENTRAL HONSHUHONSHU Kozu-shiKmoazu-shima Miyake-jiMmiyaake-jima

EXPERIENCE Central Honshu The modern skyline of Yokohama’s Minato Mirai 21 district Y1 OKOHAMA focuses on Japanese artists with connections to the city, 横浜 including Imamura Shiko, Kanzan Shimomura, and Chizuko Yoshida. ! F5 ⌂ Kanagawa Prefecture k £ n In Yokohama Stn by 3\” west exit; www.yokohamajapan.com NYK Maritime Museum Japan’s second-largest city, Yokohama has been a center for shipping, trade, foreign contact, and modern ideas ⌂ 3-9 Kaigandōri # 10am– since the mid-19th century. Formerly a small fishing 5pm Tue–Sun ∑ nyk.com village on the Tokaido road, it was made a treaty port in 1859; there followed an influx of foreign traders, Founded in the 1880s, Nippon making it the biggest port in Asia by the early 1900s. Yusen Kaisha (NYK) is one of the world’s largest shipping 1=\\ home to the Pokémon Center, companies. The quirky NYK which stocks a huge array of Maritime Museum – with its Landmark Tower franchise­related merchandise. exquisitely detailed model ships – celebrates the com­ ⌂ 2-2-1 Minato Mirai 2\” pany’s history and Yokohama’s # 10am–9pm daily connection to the sea, showing ∑ yokohama-landmark.jp Yokohama Museum how maritime commerce has of Art revolutionized marine technol­ Landmark Tower is the focal ogy, trade, and politics. Visitors point of the futuristic Minato ⌂ 3-4-1 Minato Mirai are also provided with a free Mirai 21 district, an area of # 10am–6pm Fri–Wed tea ceremony. redeveloped docks that is ∑ yokohama.art.museum particularly lively at the week­ HIDDEN GEM end. Built in 1993, the tower is Yokohama’s role as a meeting Japan’s second­tallest building point between East and West Oodles of at 971 ft (296 m). Reached by means that it has long been a Noodles the world’s fastest elevator, hub for the exchange of ideas. traveling at 2,500 ft (750 m) The Yokohama Museum of Art, True ramen obsessives per minute, the 69th­floor designed by Kenzo Tange, should make a stop at public lounge has a spectac­ celebrates this legacy with Yokohama’s cup noodle ular 360­degree view. Within its impressive collection of museum (www.cup the tower is the enormous modern art and photography. noodles-museum.jp), Landmark Plaza shopping The museum is highly engaged where visitors can fry mall, which houses a number with Yokohama itself, and their own ramen and of luxury brands. It is also design their own cup. 152

Must See 4′ 5\” engineer who helped build Japan’s first railroads, which Hikawa Maru Kantei-byo Temple has an unusual tombstone shaped like a railroad ticket. ⌂ Yamashita Park # 10am– ⌂ 140 Yamashitacho 5pm Tue–Sun ∑ nyk.com # 9am–7pm daily 7\” ∑ yokohama-kanteibyo.com Originally built in 1930 as a Sankai-en Garden cruise liner and light cargo Few sites better evoke ship, the Hikawa Maru spent Yokohama’s cosmopolitan ⌂ 58 Honmokusannotani World War II operating as a roots than Kantei­byo, the # 9am–5pm daily floating hospital and in its 30 temple that has served as the ∑ sankeien.or.jp years of service crossed the heart of the city’s Chinese Pacific 254 times, carrying community – the largest in With its ponds, bamboo some 25,000 passengers. The Japan – for the past 150 years. groves, rivers, and meandering restored liner is now perma­ This popular temple functions trails, this hideaway transports nently docked in Yokohama, as a spiritual, cultural, and visitors back to ancient Japan. where visitors can stroll the social hub, and is particularly Among the garden’s archi­ decks, inspect the elegant atmospheric during Chinese tectural treasures is a 15th­ wood­panelled cabins and New Year. century pagoda. Constructed soak up the Art Deco glamour in Kyoto, it was relocated of the lounge. Those who are 6\” to Sankei­en in 1914. technically minded will enjoy the opportunity to get close Foreigners’ Cemetery Opened to the public in to the vessel’s mighty engines. 1906, the entire garden was ⌂ 96 Yamatecho # 10am– once the private home of Did You Know? 5pm Tue–Sun ∑ yfgc- Tomitaro “Sankei” Hara (1868­ japan.com 1939), an extremely wealthy Japan’s first railroad silk merchant. His personal was constructed in Yokohama Foreign General lodgings – a sprawling com­ 1872, connecting Cemetery was founded in plex featuring dozens of airy Yokohama to Tokyo. 1854 following the death of traditional tatami rooms, an American marine. Among overlooking a private lawn – the 4,500 tombs in the early can be toured at the site. 20th­century Foreigners’ Cemetery graveyard is that of Edmund Morel, the English Yokohoma Station Pacifico Yokohama 650 yd (600 m) Exhibition Hall KOKUSAI-ODORI 0 meters 600 N METROPOLITAN EXYokohamaMINATO Convention 0 yards 600 Museum of Art MIRAI 21 Landmark Minato O R I Hall Plaza Mirai Cosmo A – D Clock 21 Yokohama’s Cup SAKUR Noodle Museum Landmark Tower Nippon Maru SHINKO-CHO PR ESSWAY NYK Maritime Osanbashi Museum Yokohama International Sakuragicho Passenger Terminal Kanagawa Bashamichi Prefectural HONCHO-DORI Museum NOGECHO KANBNAAIS-HOADMOIRCIHI MINATO-ODORI Nippon Yamashita KANNAI DORIOdori Park Hikawa Maru Hinodecho METROPOLITAN Kannai Yokohama O Marine EXPRESSWAY Park – Isezaki- Yokohama chojamachi Stadium HI Tower CHOJAMACHI S A CHINATOWN B N Motomachi- SA Chukagai O OKINACHO Ishikawacho KaTneMtmEeTiRp-OblePyOoLITMAONTOEMXYAPCRAHEMI SMoSWtAoAmYTaEchFCieoPmraereikgtneSreya1rn.s5k’ mei-ileen(G2.a5rkdmen)

EXPERIENCE Central Honshu Visitors, under the cover of umbrellas, paying their respects to the Great Buddha K2 AMAKURA INSIDER TIP 鎌倉 Getting Around ! F5 ⌂ Kanagawa Prefecture £ JR , Odakyu and Some parts of the town Enoden lines n At Kamakura Stn; www.city.kamakura. are best explored on kanagawa.jp/kamakura-kankou/en foot but, with so many hills, it’s worth buying A seaside town of temples and wooded hills, Kamakura a one-day bus pass from was Japan’s administrative capital from 1192 until 1333. Kamakura station. The Favored by artists and writers, Kamakura has numerous energetic can also rent antique and crafts shops, and in cherry-blossom season a bicycle from here. and on summer weekends, it teems with visitors. carvings of the 33 incarnations 1\” statue of the Amida Buddha of Kannon. There is also a Great Buddha is 44 ft (13.5 m) tall. Its pro­ sutra repository; rotating the portions are distorted so that sutras is said to earn as much ⌂ 2-2-8 Hase £ Hase Stn it seems balanced to those merit as reading them. @ # 8am–6pm daily in front of it – this use of ∑ kotoku-in.jp perspective may show Greek The 1264 bell is the town’s The Great Buddha (Daibutsu) influence (via the Silk Road). oldest. Below it is a hall dedi­ is Kamakura’s most famous cated to Jizo, guardian of sight. Cast in 1252, the bronze 2\” children, surrounded by count­ less statues to children who Did You Know? Hase-dera Temple have died or been aborted. The Great Buddha has ⌂ 3-11-2 Hase £ Hase Stn 3\” shock absorbers in @ # 8am–5:30pm daily (to its base to protect it 5pm Oct–Feb) ∑ hasedera. Myohon-ji from earthquakes. jp/en ⌂ 1-15-1 Omachi § (0467) Simple and elegant, Hase­dera 22-0777 £ Kamakura Stn is home to a superb 11­faced # 9am–5pm daily Kannon, bodhisattva of mercy. The Treasure House displays On a hillside of soaring trees, characterful Muromachi­era this temple, with its unusually steep, extended roof, is the town’s largest that belongs to the Nichiren sect. It was established in 1260, in mem­ ory of a 1203 massacre. 154

4\” The main shrine was Must See reconstructed in 1828 in Edo Tsurugaoka style. To the east, the garden. Created in 1327 by Hachiman-gu Shrine Kamakura National Treasure the monk Muso Soseki, it House Museum contains a features a waterfall-fed ⌂ 2-1-31 Yukinoshita wealth of temple treasures. lake, rocks, and sand; a Zen § (0467) 22-0753 meditation cave is cut into the £ Kamakura Stn 5\” cliff. Decorative narcissi also # Shrine: 5am–9pm Zuisen-ji bloom here in January, and Japanese plum trees blossom daily; Museum: 9am– ⌂ 710 Nikaido § (0467) 22- in February, making it an 1191 @ # 9am–5pm daily idyllic natural oasis 4:30pm Tue–Sun This secluded temple is even before the known for its naturalistic cherry trees Japan’s Hachiman shrines are bloom. dedicated to the god of war; this one is also a guardian shrine of the Minamoto (or Genji) clan. Built in 1063 beside the sea, it was moved here in 1191. The approach runs between two lotus ponds: the Genji Pond has three islands (in Japanese san means both three and life) while the Heike Pond, named for a rival clan, has four (shi means both four and death). The hongu (main hall) of the ornate Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gu Shrine Kita-Kamakura Engaku-ji 0 meters 800 N Station 800 0 yards Tokei-ji Meigetsu-in YAMANOUCHI Temple Hansobo Jochi-ji Shrine Temple AKU KAIDO KA M Choju-ji R A – Kencho-ji KAJIWARA Temple Kakuon-ji Temple Enno-ji Tsurugaoka Temple Hachiman-gu Shrine Kamakura-gu Zuisen-ji Shrine Zeni-Arai OGIGAYATSU Benten Shrine National YUKINOSHITA NIKAIDO Sasuke-no Inari Shrine Treasure House Sugimoto-dera Museum SASUKE K A Temple Hokai-ji SHIYAKUSHO-DORI Temple A-KAIDO IMAKOJI N A Z A W KWOAMK AA CM IHYIA–DO JOIR I JOMYOJI Jomio-ji Temple Kamakura Oimo Café Hokoku-ji Station Kanaria KOMACHI Great Myohon-ji Buddha SASAMEMACHI Wadazuka Y U I G A H A M A- D I OMACHI J Hase-dera O Temple – O A Y Myoho-ji I RI HASE M Temple Hase Yuigahama A er Ankokuron-ji NATIONAL Temple YUIGAHAMA K ri Riv HISAGI HIGHWAY A Nam ZAIMOKUZA Yuigahama W Kuhon-ji Beach e Temple 134 Chosho-ji Temple

6\” Kencho-ji’s beautiful rear garden is constructed around a pond supposedly Sugimoto-dera in the shape of the kanji character for Temple heart or mind. EXPERIENCE Central Honshu ⌂ 903 Nikaido § (0467) 8\” Karamon (Chinese gate) leads 22-3463 @ # 8am– to the Hojo, used for services. 4:30pm daily Kencho-ji Kencho-ji’s beautiful rear garden is constructed around Founded in 734, this is the ⌂ 8 Yamanouchi § (0467) a pond supposedly in the oldest temple in Kamakura shape of the kanji character and pleasantly informal. The 22-0981 £ Kamakura Stn for heart or mind. To the side softly thatched hall contains of the temple, a tree-lined three wooden statues of # 8:30am–4:30pm daily lane leads to subtemples and 11-faced Kannon, protected up steps to Hanso-bo – the by ferocious guardian figures Kencho-ji is the foremost of temple’s shrine. at the temple gateway. Kamkura’s “five great” Zen temples and the oldest Zen 9\” 7\” training monastery in Japan. Founded in 1253, the temple Meigetsu-in Temple Hokoku-ji originally had seven main buildings and 49 subtemples; ⌂ 1-8-9 Yamanouchi ⌂ 2-7-4 Jomyoji § (0467) 22- many were destroyed in fires, § (0467) 24-3437 0762 @ # 9am–4pm daily but ten subtemples remain. £ Kamakura Stn Beside the impressive Sanmon # 9am–4pm daily This Rinzai Zen temple was Gate is the bell, cast in 1255, founded in 1334 and boasts a which has a Zen inscription Known as the “hydrangea lovely bamboo grove, which by the temple’s founder. The temple,” Meigetsu-in is you can visit for a fee, as well Buddha Hall contains a Jizo a small Zen temple with as a pleasant rock garden. The bodhisattva, savior of souls of pretty gardens. As well as temple’s Sunday-morning the dead. Behind the hall is zazen (meditation) sessions the Hatto, where public cere- are open to all. monies are performed. The

Must See hydrangeas – which are at their peak in June – there are irises; these bloom in late May, when the rear garden, usually only tantalizingly glimpsed through a round window, is opened to the public. 0\” Inside the grand Butsunichian, the mausoleum of the founder of Engaku-ji Tokei-ji q\” w\” ⌂ 1367 Yamanouchi Zeni-Arai § (0467) 22-1663 Engaku-ji Benten Shrine £ Kamakura Stn # 8:30am–4:30pm daily ⌂ 409 Yamanouchi ⌂ 2-25-16 Sasuke § (0467) § (0467) 22-0478 25-1081 £ Kamakura Stn This quiet little temple was set £ Kita Kamakura Stn # 8:30am–4:30pm daily up as a convent in 1285, at a # 8am–4:30pm daily time when only men were This popular shrine to Benten, allowed to petition for divorce. The largest of Kamakura’s “five goddess of music, eloquence, If a woman spent three years great” Zen temples, and set and the arts, is one of the in a convent she could divorce deep in trees, Engaku-ji was “seven lucky gods” of folk her husband. Thus Tokei-ji founded by the Hojo regent religion. Hidden in a niche in was nicknamed the “divorce Tokimune in 1282. An influ- the cliffs, it is approached temple.” In 1873 the law was ential zazen (meditation) through a small tunnel and a changed to allow women to center since the Meiji era, it row of torii. These lead to a initiate divorce, and in 1902 now runs public courses. cave spring where visitors Tokei-ji became a monastery. wash coins in the hope of It is still refuge-like, with Although much of Engaku-ji doubling their value. gardens stretching back was destroyed by the 1923 to the wooded hillside. Kanto Earthquake, 17 of its EAT more than 40 subtemples remain, and careful rebuilding Oimo Café Kanaria has ensured that it retains its This eatery near characteristic Zen layout Kamakura station (p177). One of its highlights, serves up kakigori in the Shozoku-in subtemple, is the Shariden, which houses (shaved ice with syrup). the relics of the Buddha. Try one of the Japan’s finest example of Chinese Sung-style Zen archi- traditional flavors, tecture, it is open only at New such as green tea or Year but can be seen through a gate at other times. Farther adzuki bean. on, the Butsunichian – the mausoleum of Engaku-ji’s ⌂ 1F Enomoto Bldg, 2-10- founder – serves matcha tea 10 Komachi, Kamakura- to visitors. This was the set- ting for Kawabata Yasunari’s shi, Kanagawa 248- 1949 novel Senbazuru 0006 ¢ D, Wed (Thousand Cranes). ∑ oimocafe.exblog.jp The main gate to  Hokoku-ji, surrounded by bamboo forest 157

Did You Know? The sunrise seen from Mount Fuji is called goraiko – an overwhelming sight. Mount Fuji, framed by blossom and reflected in Lake Kawaguchi M3 OUNT FUJI AND THE FUJI FIVE LAKES 富士山と富士五湖 ! F5 ⌂ Shizuoka & Yamanashi Prefecture £ Fuji-san, Kawaguchi-ko, Gotenba, Mishima (Tokaido Shinkansen), or Fujinomiya @ Summer only, from all stations to the nearest 5th stage, also direct from Tokyo (Shinjuku Stn west side or Hamamatsu-cho) to Kawaguchi-ko, Gotenba, and Lake Yamanaka n Fuji-Yoshida; city.fujiyoshida.yamanashi.jp At 12,390 ft (3,776 m), Mount Fuji (or Fuji-san) is Japan’s INSIDER TIP highest peak by far, its near-perfect cone floating lilac- gray or snowcapped above hilltops and low cloud. A Tips for Walkers true Japanese icon, its silhouette is famed the world over. You can only climb from Dormant since 1707, this volcano first erupted 8,000–10,000 years July to mid-September. ago and its upper slopes are formed of loose volcanic ash, devoid To catch the sunrise, of greenery. Until 150 years ago, Mount Fuji was considered so start at the 5th stage in sacred that it was climbed only by pilgrims; women were not the afternoon, sleep in allowed until 1868. Today, the hiking trails, which are divided into a hut at the 7th or 8th ten stages, are traversed by a host of climbers. The Fuji Five Lakes, stage, and rise early to at the foot of the mountain, offer sports facilities and various finish the climb. Watch attractions, including the Itchiku Kubota Art Museum. out for altitude sickness above the 8th stage. 158

Climbers Must See around the torii (gate) at the MOUNT FUJI IN ART mountain’s summit With its graceful, almost symmetrical form, its changing appearance with the seasons, and its dominance over the landscape, Mount Fuji has always been a pop­ ular subject for artists. The mountain features in various ukiyo­e, including Katsushika Hokusai’s Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji (1830–32), and Fifty- Three Stages of the Tokaido (1833–4), by Hiroshige. In other arts, Mount Fuji is echoed in decorative motifs, for instance on kimonos, in wood carvings, and even in the shape of window frames. The Shiraito waterfalls on the Fujinomiya trail, a five­ hour trek from the 5th stage 159

EXPERIENCE Central Honshu T4 AKAYAMA such as pouring tea or bowing to the audience. These early 高山 robots feature in festivals all over Japan. ! E4 ⌂ Gifu Prefecture £ JR Takayama line n In front of JR Stn; www.hida.jp/english/index.html Between Takayama’s two festivals, four of the floats are Agriculturally poor but rich in timber, characterful displayed in this hall next to Takayama has a centuries-long tradition of producing the Sakurayama Hachiman skilled carpenters. The city’s isolated mountain Shrine, along with photo­ location has meant the survival of its unspoiled graphs of the others. Intricately Edo-period streets – today lined with tiny shops, carved, they serve as evidence museums, and eating places – while the pure water of Takayama’s legendary is ideal for brewing sake. craftsmanship. Once you’ve admired the floats, pop into the gallery next door, which displays exquisite scale models of Nikko Tosho­gu Shrine (p300). 1\” townspeople dressed in traditional costume. Takayama Festival Floats Exhibition Hall Four floats also feature karakuri marionettes. ⌂ 178 Sakuramachi This form of puppetry § (0577) 32-5100 was invented in Edo # 9am–4:30pm daily (Tokyo) in 1617, and features mechanized Takayama Festival dates from dolls that perform about 1690 and takes place traditional actions, twice a year: in spring, coin­ ciding with planting, and in A float on display at fall at harvest time. Both the Takayama Festival of these festivals involve processions of 11 tall, lavishly Floats Exhibition Hall decorated floats, guided by 160

Walking through are the kitchens and living Must See the attractive historic quarters of the governor’s center of Takayama family. To one side is a jail, INSIDER TIP with a small array of torture 2\” instruments. The storehouses Cycling Tours Lion Dance Ceremony contain items relating to the A bicycle tour with Exhibition Hall rice-tax system. Hida Satoyama (www. satoyama-experience. ⌂ 53-1 Sakuramachi 4\” com) through the lush § (0577) 32-0881 rice fields and charming # 9:05am–4:25pm daily Hida Folk Village avenues of Takayama gives a rare insight into Lion dances, to drive away ⌂1-590Kamiokamotomachi rural Japan. Stopping off wild animals and evil spirits, § (0577) 34-4711 at natural hot springs, are integral to festivals such # 8:30am–5pm daily wooden farmhouses, as Takayama’s. This exhibition orchards and farms, the hall contains over 800 lion Just outside Takayama is Hida three-hour Takayama masks from all over Japan, as Folk Village, which contains cycling tour travels well as armor, screens, pottery, over 30 examples of rural along 14 miles (22 km). and coins. The highlight of houses from the surrounding any visit to the museum is area, including a gassho-zukuri offers views of the Japanese catching a performance by house from the Shokawa Alps, are interesting both the karakuri marionettes. Valley. There are also recon- architecturally and for the structed storehouses and a human details that they 3\” festival stage to explore here, reveal – such as the demands Takayama Jinya and plenty of traditional crafts of a snowy climate or the are on display. The buildings, life of a village headman. ⌂ 1-5 Hachikenmachi located on a hillside that § (0577) 32-0643 # 8:45am–5pm daily Lion dances, to drive away wild animals and evil spirits, are integral to festivals This government office was such as Takayama’s. This exhibition hall built in 1615 for Takayama’s contains over 800 lion masks. lord, but in 1692 it was made the provincial office of the 0 meters 250 N Takayama Festival Kitayama shogunate – the only one still 0 yards 250 Floats Exhibition Hall Park in existence. The front of the building comprises waiting Town Lion Dance Ceremony and meeting rooms; behind Hall Exhibition Hall Yoshijima Kusakabe Heritage House Folk Museum SOWA- TEPPOMACHI MACHI KAMI IC Miyagawa River SHIMO SHIMO HON- HINO MACHI NIN SAN M O N Hida Kokubunji ACHI5 8 FUKIYA- Temple MACHI MACHI OMACH UTE 1 Morning I Hirata Market R O NATIONAL Memorial Takayama Hall City Museum NATIONAL ROUTE 158NADA- Archaeological MACHI Museum Takayama Station Takayama Jinya Hida Folk Village HACHIKEN- Shiroyama 1.2 miles (2 km) MACHI Park NATIONAL ROUTE 158 161

A SHORT WALK TAKAYAMA EXPERIENCE Central Honshu Distance 1 mile (2 km) Time 30 minutes Nearest train station JR Takayama line With its unspoiled pedestrianized streets, charming wooden buildings that line the Takayama’s Sannomachi Quarter is the perfect streets. These old merchant houses reveal place to explore on foot. From 1692 to 1868 high, skylighted ceilings, wooden beams, and this area was under direct shogunate control fireproof storage rooms. Many of them are as a source of timber, and the quality of the still shops selling local crafts, making them surrounding forests, as well as the famed skills the perfect spots to pause. There are several of the town’s carpenters, are reflected in the fascinating museums in this part of town, too. START I SHIMO NINOMACHI SHIMO SANNOMACHI H S GBEA I- D ABYROI Y Once a sake merchant’s MIYA RIVER house, the Yoshijima Heritage House has retained its wooden beamed interior, lit by high windows. 0 meters 50 N Rebuilt of Japanese cypress in Morning market 0 yards 1879 after a fire, this house is a 50 well-preserved money-lender’s dwelling. It now houses the Kusakabe Folk Museum, displaying folkcraft items. A merchant presenting his wares at Takayama’s morning market 162

Did You Know? Takayama is often called “Little Kyoto”, due to its air of antiquity. Strolling through a charming street In a former candle and pomade shop, in the Sannomachi Quarter the Hirata Folk Art Museum’s collection includes Edo-period clothing and toys. The Sannomachi Quarter is an unusually large, intact Takayama City Museum chronicles area of Edo-period merchants’ the town’s history. shops and houses, which are now home to specialty shops KAMI ICHINOMACHI and sake brewers. YASUGAWA-DORI KAMI NINOMACHI K ABJRI I-DBGAES H I KAMI SANNOMACHI SAN-MACHI-DORI YANAGI-BASHI BRIDGE Some of the old houses The Archae­ of the Sannomachi ological Quarter overlook the Museum fast-flowing Miya River. displays local finds and crafts. I K EBDR IA -D GBEA S H I FINISH 163

EXPERIENCE Central Honshu A street lined with wooden buildings in the Nagamachi Samurai Quarter K5 ANAZAWA 2\” 金沢 Seisonkaku Villa ! E4 ⌂ Ishikawa Prefecture k Komatsu £ JR lines ⌂ 1-2 Kenrokumachi (Hokuriku Shinkasen) ∑ kanazawa-kankoukyoukai.or.jp # 9am–5pm Thu–Tue ∑ seisonkaku.com Wealth encouraged cultural development in this city. In 1583 the area, known as Kaga, passed from an The exquisite two­story egalitarian government under the Ikko Buddhist sect Seisonkaku Villa adjoining to the firm rule of the Maeda lords; while much of Japan Kenroku­en Garden was built was still unstable, Kaga had three centuries of peace in 1863 by Maeda Nariyasu, and became the richest domain in the land. As a result, 13th lord, for his mother. Its artists from Kyoto came and developed new styles here. lower floor houses formal receiving rooms, with walls 1 the Nomuras who were forced coated in gold dust, and shoji to sell their home. While many paper doors with rare Dutch Nagamachi others were simply torn down, stained­glass insets. Upstairs one samurai house was is more informal and colorful. Samurai Quarter bought by Kubo Hikobei, a The house also features a wealthy businessman, who famed 65­ft­ (20­m­) long Bisected by the picturesque restored it. With its intricate covered walkway known as Onosho Canal, this historic woodwork, costly window­ the “horsetail corridor”, which area of Kanazawa was once panes, and serene garden, was engineered in such a way home to the city’s samurai. Nomura Family Samurai that no supporting beams Retaining its traditional House grants a rare insight hold up the roof. earthen walled streets, this into the day­to­day lives of atmospheric neighborhood the samurai. Visitors can even HIDDEN GEM of waterways and winding partake in a traditional tea lanes is located at the foot of ceremony for an extra charge. Kimono Time Kanazawa castle. Some of the former samurai houses and Nomura Family The Nagamachi Kaga their gardens are open for Yuzen Silk Center public viewing. Samurai House exhibits this intricate material, which necess- At the end of the Edo Era, \” – ⌂ 1-3-2 Nagamachi itates an 18-step dyeing many samurai were ruined by # 8:30am–4:30pm daily process. For a fee, you the collapse of the financial ∑ nomurake.com can try your hand at system. One such family was silk painting and try on a kimono for size (kagayuzen-club.co.jp). 164

Must See 3\”= The beautiful and serene Kenroku-en Ishikawa Museum Garden, its features blanketed in snow of Traditional Arts and Crafts the objects by making them 4\” themselves, and the museum ⌂ 1-1 Kenrokumachi hosts regular demonstrations Kenroku-en Garden # 9am–5pm daily ¢ Apr– by experience traditional Nov: 3rd Thu of month; craftsmen. The shop on the ⌂ Kenrokumachi # Daily Dec–Mar: Thu ∑ ishikawa- ground floor offers an ∑ pref.ishikawa.jp densankan.jp assortment of pieces, all produced by local artisans Created by the Maeda family, At this tastefully laid-out and at reasonable prices. Kenroku-en is one of Japan’s museum, visitors can immerse “great three” gardens. It name themselves in the traditional For information about the means “garden of six qualities”: crafts that the Ishikawa demonstrations and hands- spaciousness, seclusion, an air prefecture is renowned on experiences led by the of antiquity, ingenuity, flowing for, including the gorgeous experts, check the museum water, and views, which are Kutani pottery, silk painting, website for details. desired in a Chinese garden. lacquerware, metalwork, gold leaf details, Japanese paper, and fireworks. Visitors are encouraged to interact with Did You Know? In winter, the city’s mud walls are covered with straw mats to protect them from harsh weather. 0 meters 500 N Train & bus stations Sakuda Gold HIGASHIYAMA 0 yards 500 900 yd (850 m) Leaf Store Ochaya Shima Geisha House TAMAGA- HIKOSOMACHI WACHO Asanogawa Fukushima H Y A K U M A N G Sargenten I O K U – O D O R HYAKUMANGOKU-ODORI OWARICHO HYAKUOMDAONRGI OKU- Tamagawa OHORI-DORI OHORI-DORI Park HOSAI Kanazawa ZAIMOKUCHO Castle Park Nagamachi Kaga Yuzen Oyama Ishikawa- Silk Center Shrine mon HYAKUMANGOKU-ODO NAGAMACHI Kanazawa YOKOYAMA- Castle MACHI Nomura Family KOSHO- Samurai House TA MACHI SCRAMBLE Chuo MACHI OGIMACHI Park Saigawa Nagamachi RI Samurai Quarter HIROSAKA-DORI Kenroku-en Garden KATAMACHI Museum Ishikawa Museum of 21st Century of Art Traditional Arts and Crafts KA TASTHESOMTPRSAPAECIIENHGOTAGDI WOAR-I Museum of Seisonkaku Contemporary Art Villa SHIRAGIKUCHO HONDA- Kaga-Honda ODORI Museum Kutani Kosen Pottery Kiln 700 yd (650 m) 165

EXPERIENCE Central Honshu 5\” 21st Century Museum Olafur Eliasson’s Colour activity of Contemporary Art house (2010) at the 21st Century ⌂ 1-2-1 Hirosaka Museum of Contemporary Art # 10am–6pm Tue– Sun ∑ kanazawa21.jp only leaving in 1869. The 7\” fortification was almost This experimental museum entirely destroyed by fire Kaga-Honda Museum was created by the famous in 1881, and only the armory architectural duo SANAA and rear gate, Ishikawa­mon, ⌂ 3-1 Dewamachi # 9am– (Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue survived. Since then, a major Nishikawa), who won the restoration project has been 5pm daily ∑ honda- Pritzker Prize in 2010. The underway, recreating the museum explores emerging structures using original museum.jp new work in visual arts, design, construction techniques. In craft, fashion, architecture, and the centre of the castle’s park, Gain a glimpse into the history film, particularly in relation to visitors can access three large­ of feudal Japan through these multiculturalism and trans­ scale reconstructions of the artifacts belonging to the portation, technology, gender original buildings. Inside descendants of Honda issues, and identity. The art these structures are intricate Masanobu, an advisor to the on display encourages physical models of the castle, as well as Tokugawa Shogun and the interaction from visitors and, displays, showing the various lord of Maeda’s highest vassal. as a result, it is particularly architectural techniques used This unique exhibition show­ popular with families. in the restoration. cases a rare collection of military hardware, including 6 exquisite armor and weaponry. Look out for the the items Kanazawa Castle connected to the samurai’s mount, including a delicately ⌂ Marunouchi § (076 234- lacquered saddle, stirrups 3800 # 9am–4:30pm with elaborate gold inlay, and daily ∑ pref.ishikawa.jp imposing horse armor, which are said to be some of the The size of Kanazawa Castle, finest examples in Japan. one of the largest in feudal Also on display are curiosities Japan, reflects the importance such as fire­fighting attire, as of its former residents, who well as wedding trousseaux were said to be the second belonging to women from the most powerful family in Japan. Maeda clan who married into The Maeda clan began building the Honda family. their castle here in 1583, and the family resided within its walls for fourteen generations, The reconstructed exterior of Kanazawa Castle, with its fortified walls 166

Must See 8\”- Did You Know? 0= Ochaya Shima At Sakuda Gold Sakuda Gold Leaf Store Leaf Store, visitors Geisha House can try a cup of tea ⌂ 1-3-27 Higashiyama with shimmering # 9am–6pm daily ⌂ 1-13-21 Higashiyama flecks of gold in it. ∑ goldleaf-sakuda.jp # 9am–6pm daily 9\”= Despite Japan’s reputation as the home of minimalism, gold ∑ ochaya-shima.com Fukushima Sargenten leaf decorates everything from folding screens to chopsticks. This museum is dedicated ⌂ 1-1-8 Higashiyama For over 400 years, Kanazawa to preserving the history of § (076) 252-3703 has been the center for gold Higashi Chaya-gai. Established # 8:30am–6pm Mon–Sat leaf production, and the city in 1820, this was the grandest ¢ 2nd & 4th Sat of month; still crafts over 98 percent of pleasure district outside Kyoto public hols the country’s output. The city’s and Edo, and was frequented humid climate is perfect for by rich merchants and nobility. For those interested in production because it mini- The area is still full of atmos- traditional Japanese music, mizes the build-up of static phere, with old-fashioned a visit to this shop where the electricity, which can tear the street lamps and wooden- Fukushima family have been delicate sheets. At the Sakuda lattice windows, but these hand-crafting three-stringed Gold Leaf Store, master crafts- now hide elegant restaurants shamisen since the early 20th men demonstrate how gold and crafts galleries. century is a must. All geisha leaf is applied to all manner must master this instrument of traditional crafts. Here, you At the center of the area, during their training and can take a tour of the factory, the Ochaya Shima Geisha the haunting sound of the view the production process, House is still much the same shamisen is one of the most and even try applying some as it was in the Edo era. On evocative experiences in of the gold leaf to an object the upper floor are guest Japan, conjuring up cold of your choice. rooms with small stages winter evenings. At Fukushima where the geisha sang and Sargenten, for a small fee, SHOP danced for their customers, visitors can learn to play one while downstairs are modest of these instruments and Kutani Kosen living quarters. The museum’s learn how they were made. Pottery Kiln collection displays items once But this tutorial is not for The only surviving kiln used by the geisha who lived everyone – the most tradi- in Kanazawa has been here, including tea ceremony tional shamisen are crafted producing porcelain utensils and musical instru- from cat and dog skin. since the mid-19th ments. After exploring the century. All pieces sold collection, you can relax with here are handmade. Old a cup of matcha here. Kutani-ware uses deep, over-glazed blues, greens, reds, and ochers, while modern work has more delicate and varied designs. You can design your own piece at the Kutani Kosen Pottery Kiln, which can be shipped to you once it is fired. ⌂ 5-3-3 Nomachi # 9am–5pm daily ∑ kutanikosen.com 167

EXPERIENCE MORE EXPERIENCE Central Honshu 6 The National Museum of displays historic machines. Japanese History offers Nearby, Toki-no-kane wooden Narita a good survey of Japan. bell tower was built in 1624 to 成田 tell the time and warn of fires. Boso no Mura East of the kura streets is Kita- ! G4 ⌂ Chiba Prefecture ⌂ 8 mins by taxi from Ajiki in, a Tendai-sect temple which k £ n In front of JR Stn; Stn § (0476) 95-3333 includes the only extant www.nrtk.jp # Tue–Sun rooms from Edo Castle. A quiet little town, Narita is National Museum of At one time, Kawagoe pos- worlds away from its nearby Japanese History sessed its own castle, which bustling airport. The town’s \” ⌂ 15-min walk from was the dominant structure main attraction is Narita-san Keiseisakura Stn § (043) in the area. Part of that castle Shinsho-ji, an interesting 486-0123 # Tue–Sun remains in the shape of Esoteric Shingon-sect temple Honmaru Goten, the former founded in 940 and dedicated 7 residence of the lord, with to Fudo Myo-o, Deity of many commodious rooms. Immovable Wisdom. Several Kawagoe times daily, the priests burn 川越 Kura-Zukuri Shiryokan wooden sticks to symbolize ⌂ 7–9 SaiwachŌ § (049) 222- extinguishing of earthly ! F4 ⌂ Saitama Prefecture 5399 # Tue–Sun ¢ 4th Fri passions. The streets are full £ n At JR Stn; (049) 222- of month   of traditional shops for the 12 5556 million temple visitors a year. Honmaru Goten Nicknamed “Little Edo,” ⌂ 2-13-1 Kurawa-machi Near Narita are over 1,000 Kawagoe preserves the § (049) 222-5399 # 9am– ancient burial mounds (kofun); atmosphere of 19th-century 4:30pm Tue–Sun the best are in the open-air Edo (Tokyo) because of its museum, Boso no Mura. kura buildings. These clay- 8 walled structures have double Did You Know? doors, and heavy shutters. Hakone About 30 kura remain and are 箱根 Narita is famous for its a ten minute walk north of eel restaurants, which Hon-Kawagoe station. The ! F4 ⌂ Kanagawa once served Edo lords Kura-Zukuri Shiryokan, Prefecture £ n 706-35 formerly a kura tobacconist, Yumoto, Hakone; www. en route to Tokyo. is now a museum and gives hakone.or.jp/en/ visitors the opportunity to peak inside one of these old- Popular since the 9th century, fashioned buildings. It also Hakone is a hilly hot-spring town, with scattered 168

YOSEGI-ZAIKU Wandering past steaming sulphur MARQUETRY vents in Owakudani valley, Hakone Originating in the 9th Lake Ashi, where replicas of STAY century, this type of historical Western-style boats marquetry looks like run to Hakone-machi and Hakone Kowakien inlaid mosaic but in fact Moto-Hakone. In clear weather Ten-yu employs a very different there are stunning views of technique. Strips are cut Mount Fuji. At Hakone-machi A luxurious spa resort from planks of up to 40 is an interesting reconstruc- with an open-air onsen varieties of woods and tion of the Seki-sho Barrier glued together to form Gate, a checkpoint that used in each room. patterned blocks, which to control passage on the are in turn glued into Edo-period Tokaido road ! F4 ⌂ 1297 Ninotaira, larger blocks. These are between Tokyo and Kyoto. Hakone, Ashigara- then either shaped with a lathe into objects like From Hakone-machi it is a shimogun, Kanagawa bowls, or shaved into short walk to Moto-Hakone. 250-0407 ∑ ten-yu.com sheets, and used to coat Located on a hilltop over- boxes and purses. looking Lake Ashi, Narukawa  Art Museum exhibits 1,500 cultural and natural attractions. artworks by modern Japanese Narita Hotel Blan The Hakone area extends masters, and has spectacular Chapel Christmas across the collapsed remains views of the surrounding With trees and tinsel, it’s of a huge volcano, which was mountains. Over a pass Christmas year-round at active until 3,000–4,000 years beyond Moto-Hakone is the this adults-only hotel. ago, leaving a legacy today of Amazake-chaya teahouse, and hot springs and steam vents. Hatajuku village, known for ! G4 ⌂ 239-1 Yoshikura, yosegi-zaiku, a form of Narita, Chiba-ken Although Hakone can be decorative marquetry. visited as a long day trip from 286-0133 ∑ chapel- Tokyo, it is worth an overnight Hakone Open-Air Museum hotel.co.jp stay. Two- or three-day public- transportation passes are \” ⌂ 1121 Ninotaira  available on the Odakyu line § (0460) 82-1161 from Shinjuku, Tokyo. A con- # 9am–5pm daily Ryokan Hakone venient circuit of the main Ginyu sights starts from the onsen Hakone Art Museum town of Hakone-Yumoto, Enjoy views over the taking the Tozan switchback \” ⌂ 1300 Gora § (0460) 82- Hakone mountains at train up the hillside to Hakone 2623 # 9am–4:30pm Fri–Wed this traditional ryokan. Open-Air Museum, with its modern sculptures. Continue Seki-sho Barrier Gate ! F4 ⌂ 100-1 via funicular to Hakone Art Miyanoshita, Hakone, Museum, which has an \” § (0460) 83-6635 # Daily Ashigara-shimogun, excellent Japanese ceramic Kanagawa 250-0404 collection and garden. Via the Narukawa Art Museum ∑ hakoneginyu.co.jp funicular and then a ropeway over the crest of the hill is the \” ⌂ 570 Motohakone  fascinating Owaku-dani (“valley § (0460) 83-6828 # 9am– of great boiling”), an area of 5pm daily sulfurous steam vents. This is an active volcanic zone, so sometimes the ropeway or sections of this area are closed to visitors for safety reasons. The ropeway continues to Old-fashioned street in Kawagoe, with kura buildings and a wooden clock tower 169

Sunset over the harbor at Shimoda, on the Izu Peninsula 9 0 Did You Know? Nagoya Izu Peninsula 名古屋 Nagoya is the birthplace of pachinko – 伊豆半島 ! E5 ⌂ Aichi Prefecture k £ n At Nagoya JR Stn; the pinball machine. ! F5 ⌂ Shizuoka www.nagoya-info.jp/en A major transportation hub for exploring. Nagoya Castle, Prefecture £ n Atami, for the region, Nagoya is a built in 1610–12 and one of pleasant and convenient, if the largest, most sophis­ Ito, and Shuzenji Stns unexciting, base. It rose to ticated of the Edo period, prominence in the 17th was destroyed in a bombing A hilly peninsula with a benign century as a Tokaido castle raid in 1945; today’s concrete climate, Izu is popular for its town, birthplace of feudal reconstruction has a top­floor many hot springs. A place of lords Oda Nobunaga and observatory and exhibitions exile during the Middle Ages, Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Japan’s about the castle. The main in the early 1600s it was home fourth­largest city and an keep will be closed until 2022. to the shipwrecked English­ industrial center, it was heavily man William Adams, whose bombed in World War II. A short bus ride east is the story was the basis of the Tokugawa Art Museum, with James Clavell novel Shogun. The city’s Me­guru one­day superb Edo­period treasures, Shimoda, on the southern sightseeing bus pass, or a bus­ as well as a 12th­century tip, became a coaling station and­subway pass are good illustrated handscroll of the for foreign ships in 1854, Tale of Genji, part of which is then opened to US traders. Autumn leaves framing exhibited each November. Today Shimoda has little of the elegant architecture Reproductions of the scrolls interest besides pretty gray­ of Nagoya Castle are on permanent display. and­white walls, reinforced against typhoons with Nagoya Castle crisscross plasterwork. \” ⌂ 1-1 Hommaru § (052) 231-1700  Shiyakusho Stn Izu’s east coast is quite @ Nagoya-jo Seimon-mae developed, but the west stop # 9am–4:30pm daily has charming coves and fishing villages, such as Toi Tokugawa Art Museum and Heda, offering delicious \” ⌂ 1017 Tokugawa-cho long­legged crabs and other @ Shindeki stop # 10am– seafood. The center is also 5pm Tue–Sun ∑ tokugawa- relatively unspoiled, with art-museum.jp/en wooded mountains and rustic hot springs, including Shuzenji onsen and a chain of villages from Amagi Yugashima to Kawazu. These latter were the setting for Yasunari Kawabata’s short story The Izu Dancer, commemorated across Izu. 170

q Toro ruins Jews using transit visas via \” ⌂ 5-10-5 Toro § (054) Japan. He is commemorated Shizuoka 285-0476 # 9am–4:30pm by a monument and museum Tue–Sun at the Hill of Humanity Park. 静岡 Ocha no Sato Inuyama Castle ! F5 ⌂ Shizuoka & \” ⌂ 3053-2 Kanaya \” ⌂ 65-2 Inuyama Kitakoken Fujimicho § (0547) 46- § (0568) 61-1711 # 9am– Yamanashi Prefecture 5588 # 9am–5pm Wed–Mon 4:30pm daily £ n In JR Stn; www.visit- w Meiji Mura Inuyama \” ⌂ 20 mins by bus from shizuoka.com/en 犬山 Inuyama Stn § (0568) 67- 0314 # 9:30am–5pm Tue– Settlement in this area goes ! E5 ⌂ Aichi Prefecture Sun (from 10am Aug; to 4pm back to AD 200–300. Later the k £ n In front of W side of Nov–Feb) ¢ Jan 21–Feb 25 retirement home of Tokugawa station; (0568) 61-6000 Ieyasu, Shizuoka is today a DRINK sprawling urban center, the This quiet town sits on the city in Japan at greatest risk Kiso River. The small, simple ID Café of a major earthquake – and Inuyama Castle, built in 1537, This vast nightclub in probably the only place that is the oldest in Japan. It places Nagoya’s raucous Sakae is fully prepared. more emphasis on defense district packs as many than show, but is still quite as 5,000 people on to its The Toro ruins near the port graceful, with views across have reconstructions of ancient the river far below. six dance floors. buildings and an excellent ! E5 ⌂ 3-1-15 Sakae, interactive museum. The view Outside Inuyama is Meiji Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi, from Nihondaira plateau, in the Mura, a theme park with over east of the city, to Mount Fuji 60 Meiji-era (1868–1912) build- Aichi 460-0008 and Izu is superb. Nearby is ings. Yaotsu, where Chiune ∑ idcafe.info Kunozan Tosho-gu, one of the Sugihara was born, is a train three top Tosho-gu shrines. ride away. Japan’s consul in Shooters Lithuania in World War II, With seating for 130, West of Shizuoka, Kanaya Sugihara saved around 6,000 Shooters is Nagoya’s has one of Japan’s largest tea largest sports bar, with plantations. Fields can be over a dozen screens. visited, and the elegant Ocha ! E5 ⌂ 2-9-26 Sakae, no Sato museum portrays Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi, tea lore. Nearby, the Oigawa steam railroad takes you right Aichi 460-0008 into the untamed South Alps. § (052) 202-7077 7 Days Brew Close to Nagoya station, this bar dispenses an excellent range of craft beer on draft. ! E5 ⌂ 4-42-1 Meieki, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya- shi, Aichi 450-0002 ∑ 7daysbrew. business.site A tourist boat on the Kiso River, overlooked by the charming Inuyama Castle 171

EXPERIENCE Central Honshu Gassho-Zukuri houses in the pretty village of Ogimachi, in the Shokawa Valley e Suganuma has nine gassho frame covered with sutra- buildings. Ainokura is a hill- inscribed paper, then coated Shokawa Valley side hamlet of 20 gassho in clay and lacquered. houses (two open to visitors). 庄川渓谷 Gifu is also known for its Open-Air Museum unique cuisine, the result of its ! E4 ⌂ Gifu and Toyama history as a center for trade. \” ⌂ Across the river from Prefectures @ From Ogimachi § (05769) 6-1231 5TOP GIFU # Apr–Nov: 8:40am–5pm FOODS Nagoya, Takayama, daily; Dec–Mar: 9am–4pm Fri–Wed Ayu Toyama, Shin-Takaoka, This fish is grilled over r an open flame and Kanazawa n ml. served with just a Gifu sprinkling of salt. shirakawa-go.org/en 岐阜 Fuyu persimmons A remote mountain region A winter treat that with unique thatched houses, ! E5 ⌂ Gifu Prefecture tastes of dates, brown the Shokawa Valley comprises k £ n At Gifu JR Stn; www. sugar, and cinnamon. two areas: Shirakawa-go travel.kankou-gifu.jp (including Ogimachi) to the Hida beef south and the five hamlets This rather garish spa town This high-quality beef is of Gokayama to the north. is known for ukai, a tradition known for its marbling Under deep snow from that involves using trained and a layer of fat. December to March, the cormorants to catch fish. region was historically a Nightly from mid-May to mid- Kuri kinton refuge for the defeated October, except at full moon Symbolizing wealth and and persecuted. Until the or when stormy, fishermen usually eaten at New 1970s most families here and their cormorants go out Year, this is a dish of produced silk, raising silk- on torchlit boats; the birds candied chestnuts with worms in gassho-zukuri dive for ayu (sweetfish) and mashed sweet potatoes. thatched houses. trout, which they are prevented from swallowing by a ring Keichan Of the original 1,800, fewer around their necks. Chicken thighs stir-fried than 150 gassho houses with cabbage and garlic remain. Three settlements – On dry land, the town is soy sauce. Ogimachi, Suganuma, and known for the largest lacquer Ainokura – are World Heritage Buddha in Japan, at Shoho-ji Sites. Every April–May, a few temple. Dating from 1832, it houses are re-thatched, one comprises a woven bamboo roof taking 200 villagers and volunteers two days. Ogimachi is the largest village, with 59 gassho houses and an Open-Air Museum. 172

GASSHO-ZUKURI HOUSES These houses are named for their steep thatched roofs, shaped like gassho (“praying hands”). Formed of a series of triangular frames on a rectangular base, the roofs are able to withstand heavy snow and shed rain quickly so that the straw does not rot. Generally three or four stories tall, the first floor of gassho- zukuri houses traditionally accommodated extended families of 20–30 people, who were all involved in silkworm cultivation. The upper floors housed the silkworms, permitting variations in light, heat, and air at different stages. To maximize ventilation and light, windows at both ends were opened to allow the wind through. Architectural details vary from village to village. Horizontal poles are Did You Know? used for securing ropes No nails were used to when doing repairs. build these houses – The thatch, made the timbers are from miscanthus, bound together with can be up to straw rope. 3 ft (1 m) thick. Gassho roofs slope at about 60 degrees. Ceiling slats allow A notched pole smoke from the hearth acts as a ladder. to reach the roof. Horizontal beams are slightly curved to absorb stress. The hearth was A typical used for heating, gassho-zukuri cooking, and house in the drying the silk. Shokawa Valley A gassho-zukuri house in Ainokura, one of the five hamlets of Gokayama 173

EXPERIENCE Central Honshu t North of Matsumoto, Hotaka DOSOJIN STONES is home to Japan’s largest These two jaunty stone Matsumoto wasabi (horseradish) farm. figures are guardian deities of travelers. 松本 Matsumoto Castle They are found at \” ⌂ 20-min walk from many roadsides in ! E4 ⌂ Nagano Prefecture Stn § (0263) 32-2902 northern Nagano # 8:30am–4:30pm daily Prefecture, as well as at k £ n At Matsumoto JR village boundaries. The Japan Ukiyo-e Museum pair are often depicted Stn; www.visitmatsumoto. \” ⌂ 7-min drive from Stn holding hands. § (0263) 47-4440 # 10am– com/en 5pm Tue–Sun hidden, and a copy shown every six years. The temple Despite being the gateway to Matsumoto Folkcraft also has a pitch-dark under- the Japanese Alps, this city’s Museum ground passage containing a main attraction is Matsumoto \” ⌂ 15 mins by bus from “key to paradise”: touching the Castle. It has the oldest five- Stn, Mingeikan-mae stop key, positioned on the right- tiered keep in Japan (1593) § (0263) 33-1569 # 9am– hand wall, is said to bring and its walls and moat date 5pm Tue–Sun happiness in the afterlife. from 1504. Defensive devices include niches for archers, y In nearby Obuse, the guns, and dropping stones. Nagano Hokusai Museum is devoted The top floor holds a shrine to 長野 to artist Katsushika Hokusai the goddess of the 26th night (1760–1849), who stayed in the who was thought to protect ! E4 ⌂ Nagano Prefecture town as an old man. Farther against fire and invasion. £ n At Nagano JR Stn; into the mountains Jigokudani www.go-nagano.net Monkey Park, reached by bus Beside the keep stands the from Kanbayashi onsen, is Moon-Viewing Turret, added Surrounded by low mountains, famous for the wild macaques in the 1630s for aesthetic Nagano is a skiing center and living around its hot pools. purposes. The castle admis- was the main venue for the sion includes entry to the 1998 Winter Olympics. In the Matsumoto City Museum in town, the prime attraction is the grounds, which features Zenko-ji, a non-sect temple local geography, wildlife, that has, unusually, always history, dolls, and tools. been open to women as well as men. Established in 670, it Also in Matsumoto are the enshrines what is thought to Japan Ukiyo-e Museum, an be Japan’s oldest Buddhist excellent collection of wood- image, an Amida triad brought block prints, and Matsumoto Folkcraft Museum, with folk from Korea in the 6th art from Japan and across century. This is kept Asia; on the edge of the city, Utsukushigahara and Asama have pleasant hot springs.

Walking over the Kappabashi bridge to cross the Azusa River, in Kamikochi Hokusai Museum \” ⌂ 10-min walk from Obuse Stn § (026) 247-5206 # 9am–5pm daily u i EAT Kamikochi Chichibu-Tama-Kai Kobayashi National Park Matsumoto is famous 上高地 for soba noodles, and 秩父多摩甲斐国立公園 this is one of the best ! E4 ⌂ Nagano Prefecture places to enjoy them. ! F4 ⌂ Tokyo, Saitama, £ To Shin-Shimashima, ! E4 ⌂ 3-3-20 Ote, Nagano, and Yamanashi Matsumoto-shi, Nagano then bus @ From Hirayu Prefectures £ Seibu- 390-0874 onsen or Shin-Shimashima § (0263) 32-1298 Chichibu Stn, Seibu- n Next to Kamikochi bus  Chichibu line; Chichibu Stn, terminal; (0263) 95-2433 Alps Gohan Chichibu line; Okutama or This cult restaurant An alpine valley with a handful offers patrons two of hotels and campsites, Mitake Stns, JR line n Seibu- daily-changing options. Kamikochi lies in the southern ! E4 ⌂ 3-7-5 Fukashi, part of the Chubu Sangaku Chichibu Stn; (0494) 21 2277 Matsumoto-shi, Nagano (North Japan Alps) National Park, at an altitude of 4,900 ft Chichibu-Tama-Kai National 390-0815 (1,500 m) and is a good hiking Park is a remote region of low ∑ alpsgohan.com and climbing base. The valley mountains, stretching from is reached by a tunnel (open the narrow valleys of Okutama  late April–early November); in the south to the basin in July, August, Golden Week, around Chichibu city in the Fureai Yamabekan and on some weekends, private north. The two parts of the Learn to make soba cars are banned. Japan’s park are separated by moun- noodles for yourself highest (after Fuji) and wildest tains, crossed only by a few mountains are in the South hiking trails. Within the park, with the help of Alps, but the North Alps railroads reach a few spots, experienced teachers. have more snow and more but travel is mostly by bus. impressive scenery. Plentiful ! E4 ⌂ 85-1 Satoya- mountain refuges allow hikes A silk-producing area until mabe, Matsumoto-shi, of several days from hut to the early 1900s, Chichibu is now hut, often via a hot spring. known for a pilgrim route Nagano 390-0221 linking 34 Kannon temples. § (0263) 35-9076 The most spectacular climb To the north, at Nagatoro, is a three-day route from the Arakawa River runs past  Kamikochi taking in Mount rare schist rock formations. Yari and Mount Hotaka – at 175 10,470 ft (3,190 m), the highest In the Okutama area, Mount peak in the North Alps. Short Mitake has a mountaintop hikes include the rocky scree shrine village, and the Nippara of Mount Yake, the only active Caves are worth visiting. volcano in the North Alps. In bad weather, walks are restricted to the valley floor by the rushing river. The moat surrounding Nippara Caves Matsumoto Castle, built in the early 16th century \” ⌂ 30 mins by bus from Okutamaeki stop § (0428) 83-8491 # 8am–5pm daily

EXPERIENCE Central Honshu o The Jouyoumon gate of the Eihei­ji Temple, an important Soto Zen monastery Eihei-ji p PICTURE PERFECT 永平寺 Noto Peninsula Sun Rice, Sunset ! D4 ⌂ Fukui Prefecture § (0776) 63-3188 (bookings 能登半島 Shiroyone Senmaida and Zen training) £ comprises over 1,000 ! E3–4 ⌂ Ishikawa small rice paddies on Established in 1244, Eihei-ji the steep slopes leading is one of the Soto Zen sect’s Prefecture £ @ n In down to the Noto two head temples and has Peninsula’s rocky been Japan’s most active the old Wajima train stn; shoreline. Head here Zen meditation monastery at sunrise or sunset for since the late 16th century. (0768) 22-1503 an atmospheric shot. In a classic rectilinear plan, its halls and covered corridors Projecting 45 miles (70 km) standing up to 50 ft (15 m) tall. climb up the wooded moun- into the Japan Sea, Noto is Between events, drums are tainside. Soto Zen pursues a quiet region of fishing played at Wajima and Sosogi. gradual enlightenment by villages known for seafood practicing meditation away and untouched traditions. To the west, Monzen has from the real world; the The east coast and the sandy the major Soji-ji Zen temple monastery has about 50 west near Kanazawa are quite (partially open while under- elders and 250 trainees. The developed, but the north going restoration). In Hakui atmosphere is cheerful, yet and northwest are rocky are the important shrine of life is austere, with no heating and picturesque. Public Keta Taisha and a 2,000-year- and a simple diet. In the Sodo transportation around Noto old sumo ring – Japan’s oldest, Hall (to the left), each trainee is limited; bus and train are still used each September. has just one tatami mat for similar in time and cost, but Senmaida, Sosogi, and Monzen eating, sleeping, and zazen the bus network is wider. can be reached by bus from (meditation). Silence must Wajima, Hakui by bus or train be observed in the hall, as Wajima, a weathered from Kanazawa. well as in the bath building fishing town, produces top- and toilet. Laypeople wishing quality, durable lacquerware Did You Know? to experience the rigorous with at least 70 layers of lac- Soto Zen regime must book quer. Nearby Hegura island Wajima lacquerware well ahead. is a stopping-off point for is created by applying migratory birds. Located just SHOP east of Wajima, Senmaida is nunokise (cloth) so famed for its “1,000” narrow onto the objects Wajima Market rice terraces by the sea that Each morning, the it has been awarded heri- to be glazed. streets of Wajima ring tage status by the Food & out with the cries of the Agriculture Organization of vendors at this market, the UN, while Sosogi’s coast which is said to be over has unusual rock formations. 1,000 years old. Stalls Many summer festivals here sell fish brought in from feature demon-masked drum- the port, vegetables mers and kiriko lanterns, from the nearby farmland, and handi­ crafts like the famous Wajima lacquerware. ! E3 ⌂ 1-115 Kawai- machi, Honmachidori, Wajima 928–0001 # 8am–noon, except 2nd & 4th Wed of month 176

THE LAYOUT OF A ZEN BUDDHIST TEMPLE Designed to facilitate the path to englightenment, Zen Buddhist temples transport worshippers from the earthly world to that of the Buddha. Based on Chinese Sung-dynasty Kinkaku-ji (Golden Pavilion), a Zen structures, Japanese Zen temples are Buddhist temple in Kyoto usually set out in a straight line. The entrance is marked by a bridge over a A serene statue of the Buddha in water, symbolizing the overcoming of Engaku-ji, Kamakura earthly obstacles. The main buildings, including the Sanmon (main gate), Hatto lecture hall, Butsuden (Buddha Hall), meditation or study hall, and the abbot’s and monks’ quarters, are beautiful but natural looking. Often made of unpainted wood, they are intended to be conducive to emptying the mind of worldly illusions, facilitating enlightenment. TOP The Shariden, Obai-in enshrines the subtemple 5 ZEN BUDDHIST Buddha’s tooth. TEMPLES Tokimune’s Pond mausoleum Eihei-ji The “temple of eternal Gravel garden The Daiho-jo peace” is a daihonzan was once (head temple) of the The Butsuden the abbot’s Soto Zen sect. contains an image quarters. Kinkaku-ji of the Buddha. Juniper trees, The Golden Pavilion is grown from reflected in the pond at The seeds brought this Kyoto temple (p199). thatched from China Senbutsu-jo Engaku-ji serves as a Karamon The most beautiful of meditation (Chinese gate) Kamakura’s five great Zen temples (p157). hall Hatto Ginkaku-ji Former Despite its name, bath Kyoto’s Silver Pavilion was never covered in silver foil (p195). Soji-ji This daihonzan is one of the largest and busiest temples in Japan. Archery The hall temple bell The layout of Engaku-ji, The bridge The Sanmon a Zen Buddhist temple over the White was built in Kamakura in 1783. Heron pond 177

Did You Know? Nezame-no-toko means “Bed of Awakening”. Standing on one of the boulders in the Nezame-no-toko gorge 178

A DRIVING AND WALKING TOUR Narai has a couple of museums, giving an KISO VALLEY insight into how life TOUR was for travelers on the Nakasendo. Distance 37 miles (60 km) Stopping-off points Narai, Magome, Tsumango Difficulty Trails and roads are well-maintained The Kiso River runs through a picturesque mountain valley that was the route of the Nakasendo, one of the Edo- period post roads. Take a drive along this ancient route, stopping at the 11 charming post towns en route. START Kiso-Hirasawa Tsumago, Narai, and Magome, in particular, still retain much of that atmosphere, their narrow streets lined Narai with wooden inns and stores. Parts of the old Torii Pass Nakasendo walking trail, especially between Kiso Tsumago and Magome, are as they were Yabuhara in the Edo days and can be followed past woods, farms, and milestones. More challenging hiking is found on nearby mountains such as Ontake. Miyanokoshi 0 km 5 N Kiso-Fukushima Harano 0 miles 5 Lacquerware is Kiso-Fukushima was the Agematsu a specialty in location of a major gate on Nezame- Kiso-Hirasawa. the Nakasendo road. Today no-toko The Torii Pass has it is the gateway to the one of the main sacred mountain of Ontake. remaining sections of genuine, stone-paved Nakasendo road. Nezame-no-toko Kuramoto is a pretty gorge, about half-an- Suhara All signs of modernity hour’s walk from Okuwa Agematsu. have been hidden in Nojiri Tsumago – cables are Kiso River buried and cars banned. Junikane Magome is a good starting point for the 5-mile (8.5-km) Nagiso Nakasendo walking trail to Tsumago. Tadachi Tsumago Sakashita Ochiaigawa Magome CENTRAL FINISH HONSHU Kiso Valley Nakatsugawa Locator Map For more detail see p150 179

A lady walking towards Ginza’s Yasaka Shrine KYOTO CITY Founded in 794 as Heian-kyo (capital of peace and tranquility), the city was modeled on the Tang Chinese city of Chang-an. Bounded on three sides by mountains and bisected by a river flowing north to south, the site was considered ideal by Emperor Kanmu’s geomancers (people who practiced the art of divination by interpreting markings in the earth). As the population grew, however, hygiene was a problem, especially when the Kamo River flooded. A series of rituals and festivals came into being to placate the spirits responsible for plagues and other catastrophes, resulting in a tightly knit fabric of ritual and custom, mostly still observed. Kyoto culture became an amalgam of several influences, of which the imperial court and nobility were the first and most important. Later came the samurai, patrons of Zen Buddhism, and the tea ceremony. Merchants were also influential, especially the silk weavers of Nishijin. The city was reduced to ashes at various times by earthquakes, fires, and the ten-year period of civil strife known as the Onin War (1467–77). During the Edo period (1603–1868), the balance of power shifted from Kyoto to Edo (Tokyo), and Kyoto eventually lost its status as capital in 1869. Despite this, Kyoto retains its refined, imperial air, while at the same time embracing all that comes with being a cosmopolitan 21st-century city. 181

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Iwakura Iwakura KYOTO CITY Kino Kino Must Sees 1 Nijo-jo T A K A R A G ATIAKKEA RDAOGRAI I K E Hachiman-mHaaechiman-mae 2 Fushimi Inari-taisha KokusaikaikKaonkusaikaikan DORI Miyake- Miyake- Experience More hachiman hachiman 3 Toji Temple 4 Kyoto National Museum Takaraga Takaraga 5 Sanjusangen-do Temple orogaikeMidorogaike Pond Pond 6 Kyoto Station TakaragaikeTakaragaike 7 Chion-in Temple Pond Pond 8 Nishi Hongan-ji 9 Higashi Hongan-ji ShugakuS-ihnugaku-in 10 Pontocho Alley Imperial VImilplaerial Villa 11 Kiyomizu-dera Temple 12 Gion District K I T AYA M A-DKŌIRTIAYA M A-DŌRI SHUGAKSUHIUNGAKUIN 13 Nanzen-ji 14 Kongo Noh Theater MatsugasakMi atsugasaki Shugakuin Shugakuin 15 Kyoto Imperial Palace 16 Ginkaku-ji (Silver Pavilion) ma Manshu-Minanshu-in 17 Shoren-in Temple 18 Okazaki Area al Temple Temple 19 Daitoku-ji 20 Kamo Shrines Ichijo-ji Ichijo-ji Shisen-dSohisen-do 21 Kitano Tenman-gu Shrine Temple Temple 22 Kinkaku-ji (Golden Pavilion) OJI-BAKSIHTAI OJI-BASHI ICHIJOJIICHIJOJI 23 Ninna-ji 24 Ryoan-ji SHIMOGAMO-HON-DORI RI Takano River 25 Myoshin-ji 26 Koryu-ji er 27 Insho Domoto Museum Kamo Kamo 28 Sagano District Shrines Shrines 29 Shisen-do Temple -DO Chayama Chayama z Arashiyama District x Katsura Imperial Villa Riv 32 Takao District 33 Kurama District N 34 Manshu-in Temple 35 Daigo-ji River GTAaMkOa-nHoO SAKYSOA- KUYO – KU 36 Shugaku-in Imperial Villa 37 Hieizan Enryaku-ji O MototanakaMototanaka 38 Ohara District M Eat 1 Kichikichi I 2 Gyoza Shop Gion H M I K A G E – DMO IRKI A G E – D O R I Drink 3 Jam Sake Bar S Stay DemachiyanDaegmi achiyanagi 4 Tawaraya Ryokan 5 Hoshinoya Kyoto Ginkaku-Gjiinkaku-ji 6 Jam Hostel I M A D E G A WI MAA- D OE GR AI W A – D OJROI DOJI JOD(OSiJlvI er Pa(Svilvioenr)Pavilion) Shop River 7 Kasagen River o HIGASHI-OJI-DORI HIGASHI-OJI-DORI SHIR A KAWA-DORI ial SHIR A KAWA-DORI Honen-inHonen-in e Temple Temple YOSHIDYAOSHIDA TERAMACHI-DORIJingo- Jingo- MarutamachMiarutamachi KAWARAMKACaHI-mDoORI O K A Z A KOI K A Z A K I NationalNational Eikan-doEikan-do Temple Temple KyotoMMoudseerunmAMMorotfudseerunmAOorkAtfarzeaaki Okazaki Area Nanzen-jNi anzen-ji -mae Sanjo Sanjo HigashiyamHaigashiyama Keage Keage GION GION PontochoPoAnllteoycho Alley Shoren-inShToermenp-lein Temple Chion-inCTheimonp-lein Temple machi I MaruyaMmaaruyama Park Park Gion Gion District District H C A H I G AHSKHI GUI YAASKMHUAIKYi-yAomMizAuK-id-yeorma izu-dSeA NraJ O SANJO ST M I R O ST D – KIYOMIZKUIYOMIZTUemple Temple Misasagi Misasagi Gojo G O J O G O J O -en RI – D O – D O R Kyoto Kyoto I n NationalNational MuseumMuseum hiSjoanjusanSgaennju- sangen- do Templdeo Temple KYOTO KYOTO ōfukuji Tōfukuji

EXPERIENCE Kyoto City N1 \”IJ-O-JO PAINTERS OF THE KANO SCHOOL 二条城 Kano artists came from  C3 ⌂ Entrance on Horikawa-dori § (075) 841-0096 a low-ranking samurai  Nijojo-mae Stn @ 9, 50, 101 # Feb–Jun & Sep–Nov: family, but grew to 8:45am–5pm daily; Jan, Jul, Aug & Dec: 8:45am–5pm prominence in the 15th Wed–Mon (to 6:10pm Jul & Aug) ¢ Dec 26–Jan 3 century for their Chinese-style Although it might not look like an impressive stronghold landscapes, figures, from the outside, the interior of Nijo-jo will not disappoint. and bird and flower Full of innovative defences, and undeniably beautiful, scenes. Nijo-jo has the it’s a fascinating place to explore. largest Kano pieces ever executed. Among With few of the grand fortifications of other castles in Japan, the motifs are life-size Nijo-jo is instead best known for its unusually ornate interiors tigers crouching among and “nightingale floors.” This ingenious flooring is so called bamboo groves, wild because it was designed to make bird-like squeaking sounds herons in winter, and when walked upon, a warning of possible intruders. The complex frolicking peacocks. was created by shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616), and symbolized the power and riches of the newly established Edo- based shogunate. Ieyasu’s grandson Iemitsu commissioned the best Kano School painters for the reception halls, in preparation for an imperial visit. Ironically, in 1867 the last Tokugawa shogun resigned at Nijo-jo, in the presence of Emperor Meiji. The painting of cherry trees on Models of daimyo the door panels is attributed to in the Ohiroma Kano Naonobu (1607–50). Ichi-no-ma (first grand chamber) Shiroshoin (shogun’s Nijo’s garden is living chambers) famous for the wealth and Kuroshoin (inner variety of audience chamber) its rocks. This ingenious flooring is so called because it was designed to make bird-like squeaking sounds when walked upon, a warning of possible intruders. 184

Must See 1 The Momoyama-period Karamon Gate has a Chinese-style gable and gold-plated fixtures. 2 In the teahouse, visitors can take part in a traditional ceremony. 3 The castle’s grounds are planted with a huge variety of cherry trees, which flower at differ- ent times between late March and mid-April. 1 23 The cramps and nails below the Above the carriage porch is floorboards rub together and an unusual wood carving of squeak gently when disturbed. flying birds, peacocks, and delicately twining flowers. A dynamic painting of big cats dominates this room. Karamon Gate Entrance to Ninomaru compound Shikidai The Ninomaru Did You Know? (reception chamber) complex of reception When Nijo-jo’s big cats rooms at Nijo-jo painting was created, it was thought that leopards were female tigers. 185

EXPERIENCE Kyoto City F2USHIMI INARI-TAISHA 伏見稲荷大社  B2 ⌂ 68 Yabunouchi, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku § (075) 641-7331 £ Fushimi-Inari Stn, Keihan line; JR Inari Stn, Nara line @ Minami 5 to Inari Taisha mae # 24 hours daily This vast sprawling mountainside shrine complex with its thousands of bright red gates, meandering up the hills to the south of Kyoto City, is one of Japan’s most striking sites. Said to predate the founding of Kyoto, Fushimi INSIDER TIP Inari Shrine is an ancient wonder. Located in the ward of Fushimi – meaning “hidden water” – Hit the Streets it is dedicated to Inari, the Shinto god of rice and sake (appropriate given that the area is The streets around Japan’s second-largest producer of sake). the shrine are worth exploring for their The thousands of vermilion torii that line the intriguing traditional 2.5-mile- (4-km-) long trail from the main to architecture and the inner shrine were donated by individuals bustling atmosphere. and companies, and their name and the date Keep an eye out for of donation is inscribed on the back of each vendors selling roast gate. Larger gates can cost as much as a million sparrows on skewers. yen to dedicate. The most impressive of these This traditional snack is the gargantuan Romon Gate, which stands might not be for every­ before the main shrine. It was donated in one as the bird is still 1589 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the warlord very recognizable. responsible for the unification of the country. The stage, used for dance performances during yearly rituals at the shrine A red­collared statue of a fox – believed to be one of Inari’s messengers – in the expansive grounds of the Fushimi Inari­taisha 186

Must See Did You Know? The function of a torii is to mark the boundary between the everyday and the sacred. Walking along the torii- lined path at the Fushimi Inari-taisha 187

EXPERIENCE MORE EXPERIENCE Kyoto City 3\” THE BENTO BOX Toji Temple A bento is a take-home meal in a compartmentalized box: office workers buy them for lunch, schoolchildren eat 東寺 from them at their desk, and business travelers buy them at stations, such as Kyoto’s, to enjoy with a beer on the  B5 ⌂ 1 Kujyomachi, bullet train. In its compartments there will invariably be a portion of rice, a main serving of meat or fish, pieces of Minami-ku § (075) omelet, some vegetables, and pickles. But part of the 691-3325 @ 42 to Toji charm of the bento is that anything goes. You may Higashimon-mae; 19 & 78 open a bento and find a small octopus or to Toji Minamimon-mae; a tiny whole fish gazing up at you. 16 to Toji Nishimon-mae his attendants Gakko and Kukai is remembered on the # 8am–5pm daily (to Nikko, are enshrined in the 21st of each month, when two-story Kondo (main hall). a flea market is held in the 4:30pm winter) First built in 796, the present temple precincts. Many shop- structure dates from 1603 pers take time out for a brief Although it lacks the mossy and is considered a master- pilgrimage to the Miei-do, beauty of many Kyoto temples, piece. Rebuilt in 1644, Toji’s where they offer money and dusty Toji (actual name Kyo-o- magnificent five-story incense, some rubbing the gokoku-ji) impresses by the pagoda – at 180 ft (55 m) smoke onto whatever body sheer weight of its history. Its the tallest wooden pagoda part is troubling them. Buddhas have been watching in Japan – has become a over the city ever since Kukai symbol of Kyoto. Inside are 4\” founded the temple in 794. images of four Buddhas The city’s religious foundations and their followers. Kyoto National were laid here, and echoes of Museum bygone rituals seem to linger Northwest of the Kodo in Toji’s hallowed halls. is the Miei-do or Taishi-do 京都国立博物館 (great teacher’s hall) where Kukai turned Toji into the Kukai lived. It houses a Secret  D5 ⌂ 527 Chayamachi, main headquarters of Shingon Buddha, a Fudo Myo-o image, Higashiyama-ku @ 100, Buddhism. The sect’s rituals shown on rare occasions, as 206 & 208 to Hakubutsukan relied heavily on mandalas, well as an image of Kukai. A and in the Kodo (lecture hall), National Treasure, the graceful Sanjusangendo-mae 21 statues form a mandala, at # 9:30am–6pm Tue–Sun (to the center of which is Dainichi structure dates from 1380. 8pm Fri & Sat) ∑ kyohaku. Nyorai, the cosmic Buddha go.jp/eng/indextop.html who first expounded the esoteric teachings. About The city’s National Museum 1,200 years old, these and was established in 1895 and is other major images were noted for its pictorial works, carved from single including Buddhist and ink blocks of wood. paintings, textiles, and Heian- period sculptures. Special Statues of Yakushi exhibitions are held in the Nyorai, the Buddha Meiji-era brick building to of healing, and the right of the entrance. The five-story wooden pagoda in the grounds of Toji Temple

The futuristic hall of Kyoto Station, an enormous glass-and-steel building 5\” On the first Sunday in January STAY the temple hosts an archery Sanjusangen-do contest for young women, Tawaraya Ryokan who shoot arrows from one Each room at this old Temple end of the veranda of the ryokan is traditionally main hall to the other. decorated, with its own 三十三間堂 6 private garden.  D5 ⌂ 657 Sanjusangen­  C4 ⌂ 278 Kyoto Station domawari, Higashiyama­ Nakahakusancho, 京都駅 Nakagyo § (075) 211­ ku § (075) 561­0467 £ Keihan Nanajo Stn @ 100,  C5 n 2nd flr main 5566 206, 208 to Hakubutsukan concourse, left from  Sanjusangen­do­mae escalator; (075) 361­ Hoshinoya Kyoto On the Hozugawa River, # Apr–mid­Nov: 8am–5pm 4401/(075) 343­0548 this luxury hotel is daily; mid­Nov–Mar: 9am– A sleek complex of soaring accessible only by boat. spaces, glass surfaces, and Soak in a deep cedar tub 4pm daily bleacher-like staircases, Kyoto’s at the end of a long day. JR train station provides a Rengeo-in, more commonly futuristic entry to Japan’s old  A3 ⌂ 11­2 known as Sanjusangen-do, imperial capital. Completed Genrokuzancho, induces an almost hallucinatory in 1997, the structure is the effect on its visitors who, once work of architect Hiroshi Hara, Nishikyo­ku inside its elongated main hall, a former Tokyo University ∑ hoshinoya.com find themselves face to face professor whose design with ranks of nearly identical triumphed in an international  Kannon (goddess of mercy) competition. Although it has images – 1,001 of them, to be been criticized for its refusal Jam Hostel precise – all glimmering in the to incorporate traditional A no-frills affair, this dark. Sanjusangen-do dates Japanese motifs in its design, hostel offers communal from 1164 and is the longest the station is undeniably dormitories with bunk wooden structure in the world. eye-catching. Thanks to beds, as well as a few Its name derives from the 33 its open-air spaces it also, (sanjusan) spaces between the ironically, resembles a private rooms. building’s pillars. The temple’s traditional wooden Kyoto  D4 ⌂ 170 Tokiwachō, main image of a 1,000-armed house: pleasant in summer, Kannon was carved in 1254 by but drafty and cold in winter. Higashiyama­ku Tankei at the age of 82. Upon ∑ sakebar.jp its head are ten other heads, Within the station is a  including a miniature image of shopping area called The the Amida Buddha. Stretching Cube, specializing in Kyoto 189 out on either side are 1,000 craft items and food products. smaller images. Kannon was believed to have 33 manifes- tations, so the faithful would have invoked the mercy of 33,033 Kannons.

Did You Know? mausoleum enshrines the spirits of Tokugawa Ieyasu, his Chion-in Temple’s son Hidetada, and grandson Sanmon is the largest Iemitsu. The temple also possesses a huge bell that is gate in Japan. solemnly rung 108 times (once for each sin man is prone to commit) on New Year’s Eve. EXPERIENCE Kyoto City 7\” 8 Chion-in Temple Nishi Hongan-ji one of which is thought to be the oldest Noh stage in 知恩院 西本願寺 existence; Hiunkaku, a large tea pavilion; and the Karamon,  D4 ⌂ 400 Rinkacho,  C5 ⌂ 60 Horikawa-dori or Chinese gate. The Shoin is open twice a month, but Higashiyama-ku Hanaya-chō, Shimogyo-ku dates vary (the Kuroshoin, however, is never shown).  Higashiyama Stn, Tozai @ 9, 28, 75 to Nishi Hiunkaku can only be visited line @ 206 to Chion-in-mae Honganji-mae # 5:30am– if a booking is made at least # 9am–4:30pm daily 5pm daily ∑ hongwanji. a day in advance, although ∑ chion-in.or.jp/en this is not required on days or.jp/english when special events are held. The colossal Sanmon was built A large donation is required to proclaim the supremacy of With their ornately carved if attending a tea ceremony Jodo-sect Buddhism, of which transoms (panels above or a Noh event at Hiunkaku. Chion-in is the headquarters. doors), massive flower-decked It also emphasized the altars, and shimmering authority of the Tokugawa expanses of tatami matting, shogunate, which funded Kyoto’s cavernous Hongan-ji the temple’s restoration. temples, with their huge Goei-do (founder’s halls) The well-endowed complex and smaller Amida-do, testify occupies the site where Honen, to the power and popularity the founder of the Jodo sect, of the Jodo-Shinshu sect. started to preach in 1175. It boasts a lavish founder’s hall, Nishi Hongan-ji is rich in a smaller hall enshrining an national treasures, but not image of Amida Buddha, all are always on view. They and elegant reception halls include the Shoin (study hall), decorated with Kano School with its lavishly decorated paintings. The Gongen-do Shiroshoin and Kuroshoin compartments; Kokei no Niwa, a garden featuring cycad palms; two Noh stages, Worshippers lighting incense sticks and 9 praying at Kyoto’s Chion-in Temple Higashi Hongan-ji 190 東本願寺  C5 ⌂ 754 Tokiwacho, Karasumadori Shichijo- agaru £ JR Kyoto Stn # Mar–Oct: 5:50am–5:30pm daily; Nov–Feb: 6:20am– 4:30pm daily ∑ higashi honganji.or.jp Higashi Hongan-ji’s immense and lavish Goei-do gate is one of the first traditional structures visitors to Kyoto see as they head north out of Kyoto Station. The temple’s Goei-do (founder’s hall) dates

from 1895 and claims to be The hilltop Kiyomizu- 11 \” the largest wooden structure in the world. The striking dera Temple, where Kiyomizu-dera white plaster and gray-tile Temple walls on the temple’s northern visitors of all sects side belong to the temple 清水寺 kura, or storehouse. Inside, leave prayers (inset) there are many treasures.  D4 ⌂ 1-294 Kiyomizu, and was licensed as a geisha Higashiyama-ku @ 100, Two blocks east of Higashi quarter, a role it continues Hongan-ji proper is Shosei-en to play. Although neon and 206, 207 to Gojyozaka (nicknamed Kikoku-tei), a concrete are encroaching, spacious garden owned by the street largely remains # 6am–5:30pm, 6pm, or the temple. Poet-scholar the preserve of the traditional 6:30pm daily ∑ kiyomizu Ishikawa Jozan (1583–1672) wooden ochaya – the type and landscape architect of teahouse where geisha dera.or.jp/en Kobori Enshu (1579–1647) are entertain clients. said to have had a hand in its While many other famous design. Herons, ducks, and Pontocho is also home to temples are the preserves of other wildlife find refuge here. the tiny Tanuki Shrine. In 1978 certain sects, Kiyomizu-dera a fire broke out in Pontocho, seems to belong to everyone. 10 taking the life of a geisha. For over 1,000 years, pilgrims Where it stopped, a ceramic have prayed to the temple’s Pontocho Alley tanuki (raccoon dog) was 11-headed Kannon image and found shattered by the heat. drunk from its sacred spring. 先斗町通り Believing that the raccoon had The main hall’s veranda, a nail- sacrificed itself on their behalf, less miracle of Japanese joinery,  D4 £ Kawaramachi stn, the residents built this little offers wonderful views of Hankyu Kyoto line @ 5, 17, shrine to house its remains. Kyoto. To see the temple itself, Throw in a coin and a recorded walk to the pagoda across the 205 to Shijo-Kawaramachi message imparts such pearls ravine, and you’ll see why “to of wisdom as “beware of fire.” jump off Kiyomizu’s stage” is This charming alleyway is Tanuki statues have big testi- the Japanese equivalent of the best appreciated after dusk, cles, symbolising sacks of gold. English “to take the plunge.” when it is reminiscent of an ukiyo-e print (p130). Formerly From the beginning of June a sandbar, the stretch of land to mid-September, many of began to be developed in Pontocho’s riverside restau- 1670. The area flourished rants erect platforms, called as an entertainment district yuka, over the canal running parallel to the Kamo River. 191

EXPERIENCE Kyoto City 12 Its deities protect from illness Running east from Hanami- and, in 869, were paraded koji, north of Shijo, is Shinba- Gion District through the streets to stop shi, a street lined with discreet ochaya, and nary a neon sign 祇園地区 an epidemic – the beginning to be seen. The average Gion- of the famous Gion Matsuri. goer, however, is more likely  D4 £ Gion-shijo Stn, On New Year’s Day, thousands to partake in karaoke with flock here to pray for health their colleagues in one of the Keihan line @ 46, 201, and prosperity, while in early gaudy, neon-lit buildings that April crowds stream through populate the cluttered streets 203, 207 to Gion its gates on their way to that make up the north- Maruyama Park, a cherry- eastern part of the district, By turns tawdry and sublime, blossom viewing site. than to engage in geisha the Gion is Kyoto’s best- play at a prestigious ochaya. known geisha quarter where Gion’s main shopping area Japanese men come to revel in is the stretch of Shijo between DRINK the company of professional Yasaka Shrine and Shijo Bridge, geishas at private inns and which includes shops with Jam Sake Bar teahouses found on the streets expensive kimono accessories. This bar boasts more north and south of Shijo-dori, On the southeast corner of than 30 different types beside the Kamo River. Its Shijo and Hanamikoji is the of sake, organized by history started in feudal Gion’s most famous ochaya, region, including many times, with stalls catering to Ichiriki. Easily identified by the needs of pilgrims and Kyoto specialties. other visitors. These evolved its distinctive red walls, this Flights (tasters of into teahouses, or ochaya, teahouse is the setting of different sakes) are fulfilling a variety of appetites. a scene in the Kabuki play available, and the staff In the late 16th century, Kabuki Chushingura. Hanamikoji itself, theater moved from the Kamo a historically preserved zone, speak English. riverbank, where it had started, shows the Gion at its classic, into several venues just east and classy, best. The restau-  D4 ⌂ 170 Tokiwachō, of the river, furthering the rants and ochaya here are the Higashiyama-ku Gion’s reputation as a play- haunts of politicians and com- ∑ sakebar.jp boy’s paradise. One of these, pany presidents, and are likely Minami-za, still exists. to turn a cold shoulder to people without a proper intro- The Yasaka Shrine, whose duction. More accessible to striking two-story vermilion tourists are the nearby Gion gate rises above the eastern Corner and the Gion Kobu end of Shijo-dori, was estab- Kaburenjo venues. lished in around 656 and originally called Gion Shrine. A kimono-wearing woman in Gion District, with the Yasaka Shrine in the background 192

GEISHA, GEIKO, AND MAIKO A maiko’s hair is her own, not Despite the fact that the profession, dating from a wig. the 17th century, is in decline and blurred by the The white face activities of so-called onsen geisha and others and red lips are who offer more sexual than classical arts, geisha classic Japanese still tread the streets of Kyoto. Known as geiko ideals of beauty. (child of the arts), their enclaves are Gion-kobu, Pontocho, Miyagawa-cho, and Kamishichi-ken. Under- kimono GEIKO AND MAIKO COSTUME Less polished than their geiko “sisters,” Tabi maiko, apprentice geisha, are a Kyoto-only socks phenomenon. They wear their hair in a distinctive style, with ornamental hairpins, Koppori and sport a unique costume featuring a clogs long, hanging obi (sash), tall koppori clogs, and an under-kimono with an embroidered collar. When becoming a fully fledged geiko, they exchange the embroidered collar for a white one in a transition known as eri-kae. PERFECT PERFORMANCES Geishas’ knowledge of traditional arts, skill at verbal repartee, and ability to keep a secret win them the respect, and some- times love, of their well-heeled male clients. The geisha world moves to the rhythm of the shamisen, a three-stringed instrument that originated in Okinawa. Poised and posture-perfect, the geisha dance to this eery sound, sometimes using a fan as a prop. Geisha who choose not to specialize in dance will instead master the shamisen or another instrument, and play throughout their life. A maiko wearing her traditional costume before she becomes an accomplished geiko INSIDER TIP When to Visit If you want to see geisha, the best time to visit Kyoto is April. Every day of this month, geisha in Gion-kobu stage performances, and the Miyagawa-cho district holds the Kyō Odori dance. For small- scale shows, head to Kamishichiken in the last two weeks of April for Kitano Odori. A geisha playing a shamisen with her teacher as another looks on 193

EXPERIENCE Kyoto City 13 \” The temple’s colossal Sanmon, 5TOP KYOTO a two-story gate built in 1628 SPECIALTIES Nanzen-ji to console the souls of those killed in the Summer Siege of Yudofu 南禅寺 Osaka Castle, is said to have Kyoto is said to produce been the hideout of Ishikawa some of Japan’s best  E4 ⌂ 86 Nanzenji Goemon, a legendary outlaw tofu. Yudofu is soft tofu hero who was later boiled gently cooked in broth. Fukuchicho, Sakyo-ku alive in an iron cauldron. Kyo Tsukemono  Keage Stn, Tozai line Three of Nanzen-ji’s twelve Pickles made with just @ 5 to Nanzen-ji-Eikan- subtemples are open to vinegar and salt. do-michi # 8:40am–5pm the public year-round. The most impressive, Konchi-in, Kyoto-style Sushi daily (to 4:30pm Dec–Feb) boasts work by Kobori Enshu, Featuring preserved featuring pines and boulders fish and vinegary rice. ∑ nanzenji.com arranged in a tortoise-and- crane motif. Tenju-an has a Yatsuhashi From its pine-studded outer dry garden and a small, lush A soft, chewy, sweet precincts to the inner recesses stroll garden. Nanzen-in cinnamon delicacy. of its subtemples, this quintes- occupies the original site of sential Zen temple exudes Emperor Kameyama’s villa. Yuba an air of serenity. Since 1386, Restored in 1703, it faces a The skin that forms on Nanzen-ji has been the center pond-centered garden backed the surface of boiling of Kyoto’s Gozan, or “five great by a wooded mountainside. soy milk is served with Zen temples.” soy sauce, wasabi, and The red-brick aqueduct in ponzu (citrus dressing). The Hojo (abbot’s quarters) front of Nanzen-ji may seem includes a small but exquisite incongruous, but for Japanese 14 \” dry garden attributed to tourists this structure is one Kongo Noh Theater Kobori Enshu (1579–1647), 金剛能楽堂 and Momoyama-period of Nanzen-ji’s greatest paintings, including the Kano attractions. Built in 1890, it  C3 ⌂ Nakadachiuri- Tanyu masterpiece Tiger formed part of an ambitious agaru, Karasuma-dori, Drinking Water. Nearby is a canal project to bring water Kamigyo-ku  Imadegawa room overlooking a waterfall and goods from neighboring Stn, Karasuma line § (075) and garden, where a bowl Shiga Prefecture into the city. 441-7222 # Tue–Sun of matcha (ceremonial tea) It was one of Meiji Japan’s and a sweet can be enjoyed first feats of engineering. The Kongo Noh Theater for a small fee. across from the Imperial Nanzen-ji is synonymous Palace grounds opened with yudofu, boiled tofu, a in June 2003, following its delicacy best enjoyed during relocation from a site in Shijo cold months. Specialty res- Muromachi. During the Edo taurants are located within period (1603–1868) Noh was the temple precincts. adopted as the official art of the warrior class, and the Kongo Theater has the longest history of regular use as a Noh stage in Japan; its players are particularly known for their agility and acrobatic feats. The theater incor- porates several features The aqueduct in front of Nanzen-ji, whose grounds offer opportunities for peaceful walks (inset) 194

The bucolic setting of Ginkaku-ji, also known as the Silver Pavilion from the earlier design, At the southern end of the renaissance now referred to including the outdoor stage, park is a delightful pond with as Higashiyama culture. In pillars, and large acoustic an arched bridge. This is all tribute to his grandfather, earthenware jars. Regular that remains of one of several who covered Kinkaku­ji in gold performances are held at the noble families’ estates that leaf (p199), Yoshimasa had theater, usually on the last occupied much of what is now intended to finish his pavilion Sunday of the month. Look parkland. From the bridge is in silver. However, the ruinous out for exhibitions of Noh cos­ an unobstructed view all the Onin War thwarted that tumes and masks in the lobby. way north to the Kenreimon, ambition. Minus its final the majestic gate in the middle coating, the graceful Silver 15 \” ‘ of the south wall, which may Pavilion now shines with be used only by the emperor. the patina of age. Kyoto Imperial Palace 16 \” EAT 京都御所 Ginkaku-ji (Silver Kichikichi Pavilion) Enjoy chef Motokichi  C3 ⌂ 3 Kyoto-Gyoen Yukimura’s omurice Kamigyo-ku  Imadegawa 銀閣寺 Stn, Karasuma line § (075) (omelet on top of 211-1215 # 9am–5pm Tue–  E3 ⌂ 2 Ginkakuji-cho fried rice). Sakyo-ku § (075) 771-5725 Sun (to 4:30pm Mar & Sep; @ 100 to Ginkaku-ji-mae  D4 ⌂ 185-4 to 4pm Oct–Feb) ¢ Dec 28– # Mar–Nov: 8:30am–5pm Zaimokucho, Sanjo Pontocho-dori Kudaru, Jan 4, public hols daily; Dec–Feb: 9am– Nagoya-ku ∑ kichi2.net With its stately pines and 4:30pm daily  vistas of the Higashiyama, the Kyoto Imperial Palace Park Ginkaku­ji – actual name, Gyoza Shop Gion (Kyoto Gyoen) is a spacious Jisho­ji; English nickname, This gem specializes in oasis in the heart of the city. Silver Pavilion – is considered gyoza, fried dumplings. On its grounds are the Imperial by some to be an unequaled Palace (Kyoto Gosho) and masterpiece of garden design;  D4 ⌂ 373-3 Sento Imperial Palace (Sento others find it overrated. But Kiyomotocho, Gosho), whose impressive the important role the temple Higashiyama-ku stroll garden was built in has played in Japanese culture § (075) 533-7133 1630. The Imperial Household is indisputable. Within its walls Agency (Kunaicho), where the tea ceremony, flower  tickets are issued for the arrangement, and ink painting imperial structures as well found new levels of refinement. as to Shugaku­in (p204) and Katsura villas (p203), is in the The temple was originally northwest corner. Remember the mountain retreat of shogun to bring your passport. Yoshimasa (1436–1490), who is remembered for an artistic 195

EXPERIENCE Kyoto City 17 \” 18 National Museum of Modern Art Shoren-in Temple Okazaki Area \” ⌂ 26-1 Okazaki Enshoji- cho, Sakyo-ku § (075) 761- 青蓮院 岡崎公園一帯 4111 # 9:30am–5pm Tue– Thu & Sun; 9:30am–8pm Fri  D4 ⌂ 69-1 Awataguchi  D3 @ 5 or 100 to Kyoto & Sat (to 9pm Jul–Oct) Sanjobocho, Higashiyama- Kyoto Municipal ku  Higashiyama Stn, Kaikan Bijutsukan-mae Museum of Art Tozai line @ 5, 46, 100 to \” ⌂ 124 Okazaki Enshoji- Jingu-michi # 9am–5pm Okazaki is home to museums, cho, Sakyo-ku § (075) 771- daily (see website for late galleries, sports grounds, the 4107 # 9am–5pm Tue–Sun openings) ∑ shorenin.com municipal zoo, and Heian- International Exhibition Jingu, one of Kyoto’s largest Hall (Miyako Messe) This aristocratic temple’s and newest shrines. Built in ⌂ 9-1 Okazaki Enshoji-cho, symbol is its ancient camphor 1895, the shrine was intended Sakyo-ku § (075) 762-2630 trees whose 800-year-old to help boost the city’s morale # 7am–10:30pm daily gnarled limbs spread majes- and economy – both of which tically on either side of the were at a low ebb after Tokyo Admiring works in front gate. Shoren-in grounds was made capital in 1868. the National Museum are beautifully landscaped, With its vermilion pillars and of Modern Art with a bright pond garden green tiles, the shrine harks on one side and a mysterious, back to Tang Dynasty China. camphor-tree-shaded expanse Its pond garden is famous for of moss on the other. The irises and a Chinese-style teahouse in the garden has covered bridge. been rebuilt, the original having been burned in April The National Museum of 1993 by left-wing radicals Modern Art houses a superb protesting the Emperor’s collection of paintings by a visit to Okinawa. school of Kyoto artists active during the Meiji and Taisho Shoren-in’s grounds eras. Across the street is the venerable Kyoto Municipal are landscaped, with Museum of Art, which hosts exhibitions of European and a bright pond garden American works. The Kyoto International Exhibition Hall on one side and a (Miyako Messe), hosts a variety of shows, while its basement mysterious, camphor- museum presents scores of Kyoto crafts, including tree-shaded expanse Kiyomizu-yaki porcelain. of moss on the other. The beautiful gardens of Shoren-in Temple as seen from the teahouse 196

THE TEA CEREMONY Preparing the ancient tea utensils for a chaji ceremony The point of the chaji (ritual), in which a light meal and whisked powdered The tea ceremony is a well-orchestrated matcha (tea) are served by a host to a series of events. First, you meet your few invited guests, is summed up by fellow guests, before walking through the samurai notion “one lifetime, one the grounds of the teahouse, performing meeting” (ichigo, ichie). In other words, ablutions en route. Once you are inside the this is a moment to be treasured. cell-like room, you should compliment the features of the room, and the quality of TAKING THE TEA the utensils, as you watch the tea being Valued for its medicinal qualities, tea was prepared. Only after bowing, can you imported from China in the 8th century. consume the wagashi (sweet) and tea. The nobility took to drinking it at lavish parties, and Murata Shuko (1422–1502) In Kyoto, where the tea ceremony was later developed the custom’s spiritual developed, special rituals are put on for aspects, which appealed to the samurai. tourists, with commentary about the complex etiquette and Zen ideals. A host presenting a decorated bowl of INSIDER TIP matcha to one of their guests The Perfect Matcha To drink matcha, sit seiza (kneeling) on the tatami mat, bow to your host when offered a steaming bowl, then hold the tea with your right hand, and place it in the palm of your left. Turn the bowl clockwise about 90 degrees, raise it with both hands, and then empty the matcha in three gulps. 197

Buddha statue in 20 \” Kamigamo Shrine Kamo Shrines ⌂ 339 Kamigamo-Motoyama, the Butsuden Hall 上賀茂・下賀茂神社 Kita-ku § (075) 781-0011 # 5:30am–5pm daily of Daitoku-ji Temple  D2 @ 4, 46, 67 to Shimogamo Shrine Kamigamo-jinja-mae; 4, 205 ⌂ 59 Shimogamo Izumigawa- 19 \” to Shimogamo-jinja-mae cho, Sakyo-ku § (075) 781- At the northern reaches of the 0010 # 6:30am–5pm daily Daitoku-ji Kamo River, Kamigamo Shrine Nishimura House has probably existed since the ⌂ 1 Kamigamo Nakaojicho, 大徳寺 7th century, while Shimogamo, Kita-ku § (075) 781-0666 its southern counterpart, is a # Mar 15–Dec 8: 9:30am–  B2 ⌂ 53 Murasakino century older. Both are dedi- 4:30pm daily Daitoku-ji-cho, Kita-ku cated to the thunder deity. § (075) 491-0019  Kita- Set in sylvan Tadasu no Mori, a Oji Stn, Karasuma line @ 1, Shimogamo has long played Kitano Tenman-gu 12, 102, 204, 205, 206 to a role in ensuring the success Shrine Daitoku-ji-mae # 9am– of the rice harvest. The Aoi 北野天満宮 4:30pm daily Festival features a procession between the shrines, horse  B3 ⌂ 931 Bakuro-cho, An air of eloquent restraint races, and archery. Kamigamo Kita-ku @ 10, 50, 51, 55, pervades the grounds of Shrine is noted for its Haiden 101, 102, 203 to Kitano Daitoku-ji. Founded in 1325, hall, rebuilt in 1628. In the Tenman-gu-mae # Feb– the temple prospered in the vicinity are several shake, Sep: 5am–6pm daily; Oct– latter half of the 16th century, priests’ residences. Of these, Mar: 5:30am–5:30pm when it came under the Nishimura House is open to ∑ kitanotenmangu.or.jp patronage of warlords (and the public. Always thronged with students tea ceremony aficionados) praying for success in exams, Oda Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. DAISEN-IN GARDEN Kitano Tenman-gu enshrines Today, Daitoku-ji’s subtemples, AT DAITOKU-JI many with famous tearooms Mankind’s relationship Kinkaku-ji, or the Golden- and jewel-like gardens pro- with nature , fate, and Pavilion, reflected in the mote the ways of Zen and Tea. our place in the uni- verse are all expressed lake waters at dusk Daisen-in, a subtemple, is in this masterpiece of famous for its Muromachi- dry-landscape design. period garden, while Koto-in For example, the “river features a grove of slender of life” reemerges wider maples and a roji (tea garden). and deeper after being Zuiho-in, built in 1535 for a temporarily dammed, Christian daimyo (feudal lord), and the Takarabune has a modern garden by (“treasure ship”) stone Shigemori Mirei, with a crucifix glides serenely down, made out of rocks. Ryogen-in, while the “turtle” founded in 1502, has five stone tries vainly gardens in different styles. to swim upstream. 198

Did You Know? s\” garden facing the fabled pavilion. An exact replica When Kyoto was Kinkaku-ji (Golden of the original, which was destroyed by arson in 1950 founded, Buddhist Pavilion) (an event dramatized in Yukio Mishima’s novel The Temple of temples were banned 金閣寺 the Golden Pavilion), the three- story structure is covered in from the city.  B2 ⌂ 1 Kinkakujicho, gold leaf and topped by a Kita-ku § (075) 461-0013 bronze phoenix. Heian statesman Sugawara no @ 12 or 59 to Kinkaku-ji- Michizane, or Tenjin-san, the Mount Kinugasa serves as deity of learning. Michizane’s mae; 101, 102, 204, 205 to a backdrop to the stroll-type favorite tree, the plum (ume), garden. The harmonious inter- is found throughout the Kinkaku-ji-michi # 9am– play of its various components grounds. On the 25th of makes it a superb example each month, the shrine is the 5pm daily of Muromachi-period land- site of a bustling flea market, scaping. Both pavilion and selling everything from Imari A glimmering legacy of garden are especially porcelains to nylon stockings. medieval Japan, Kinkaku-ji exquisite after a snowfall. (formal name Rokuon-ji) is Kamishichi-ken, an ochaya known as the Golden Pavilion. PICTURE PERFECT (teahouse) and bar-lined street It was built by the third running from Kitano Tenman- Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimitsu Going for Gold gu to Imadegawa-dori, is (1358–1408), who, relinquish- Kyoto’s smallest, but oldest ing his official duties (but not Arrive at the Golden geiko (geisha) district. On his hold on power), entered February 25 the geiko conduct the priesthood at the age of Pavilion as soon as it a tea ceremony in the shrine’s 37. The temple originally orchard, and perform dances served as his retirement villa. opens and head straight for the public every spring A fervent follower of the Zen and fall at the local theater. priest Soseki, Yoshimitsu to the pond to get a shot directed that the finished complex become a temple of its golden silhouette after his death, with Soseki as its superior. reflected in the water. The approach to the temple Use the surrounding is along a tree-shaded path, which emerges into a bright maple trees to frame your shot. 199

EXPERIENCE Kyoto City 23 \” Ninna-ji Visitors contemplating the rock garden and cherry trees in bloom at Ryoan-ji 仁和寺 f\” 25 \”  A3 ⌂ 33 Omuro Ouchi, Ryoan-ji Myoshin-ji Ukyo-ku § (075) 461-1155 龍安寺 妙心寺 £ Omuro-Nina-ji Stn,  A2 ⌂ 13 Ryoan-ji  A3 ⌂ 64 Hanazono Keifuku Kitano line @ 10, Goryonoshitacho § (075) 463-2216 £ Ryoan-ji Stn, Myoshijicho, Ukyo-ku 26, 59 to Omuro Ninna-ji Keifuku Kitano line (10- min walk) @ 59 to Ryoan-ji- § (075) 463-3121 # 9am–5pm daily (to mae # Mar–Nov: 8am–5pm daily; Dec–Feb: 8:30am– £ Myoshin-ji Stn, Keifuku 4:30pm Dec–Feb) 4:30pm daily Kitano line; Hanazono Stn, Ninna-ji’s colossal front gate serves as a reminder that this Founded in 1450, Ryoan-ji is JR Sagano line @ 10, 26 to Shingon-sect temple used to famous for its rock garden, a be, until fires devastated it, a composition of white gravel Myoshin-ji Kitamon-mae huge complex numbering up and stones thought to be the to 60 subtemples. ultimate expression of Zen # 9:10am–4:40pm daily Buddhism. Its riddles can Completed by Emperor be unraveled only by silent (to 3:40pm Nov–Feb) Uda in 888, until the Meiji contemplation, something Restoration (1868) Ninna-ji that the hordes of high-school Founded at the behest of was always headed by an students, not to mention the retired Emperor Hanazono in imperial prince. The Kondo temple’s recorded explan- 1337, destroyed during the (main hall) and its wooden ations, do little to facilitate. Onin War, and rebuilt on a Amida image are National To avoid both, try to arrive grand scale, this Rinzai-sect Treasures. Other sights include just as the gates open. Zen temple complex boasts a five-story pagoda and a some 47 subtemples rich in stand of dwarf cherry trees – The temple’s lower pond Kano School paintings and the last of Kyoto’s many sakura garden should not be other art objects. The main (cherry trees) to bloom. overlooked. Created before structures, aligned in a row in Zen arrived in Japan in the typically Zen fashion, include Situated in the southwest the Hatto (lecture hall), famous of the precincts is the Omuro 12th century, its soft for a huge dragon painted by Gosho, a compound with a contours are in contrast Kano Tanyu on its ceiling, and lovely Edo-period garden. On to the spiritual rigors its bell, the oldest in Japan. the mountain behind is the Omuro 88-Temple Pilgrimage, of the rock garden. Subtemples normally open which reproduces in miniature to the public include Keishun- the temples on Shikoku’s Fearsome stone statue in, with its four gardens and 88-Temple Pilgrimage (p258). famous tea arbor, and Taizo- It takes about 2 hours to guarding the entrance in, which has both a dry garden complete the full circuit. by Kano Motonobu (1476– to Ninna-ji Temple 1559) and a modern one by Nakane Kinsaku (1917–95). Taizo-in’s prize possession is a famous example of Zen ink painting, Josetsu’s Catching a Catfish with a Gourd (1413).

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