J. B. S. Haldane – Wikipedia – Oanhthai

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J. B. S. Haldane – Wikipedia

geneticist and evolutionary biologist

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane ( ; 5 November 1892 – 1 December 1964 [ 1 ] [ 2 ] ), nicknamed “ Jack ” or “ JBS ”, [ 3 ] was a british scientist who worked in physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and mathematics. With advanced use of statistics in biology, he was one of the founders of neo-darwinism. He served in the Great War, and obtained the rank of master. [ 4 ] Despite his miss of an academic degree in the field, [ 1 ] he taught biology at the University of Cambridge, the Royal Institution, and University College London. [ 5 ] Renouncing his british citizenship, he became an indian citizen and worked at the indian Statistical Institute for the perch of his liveliness. Haldane ‘s article on abiogenesis in 1929 introduced the “ aboriginal soup hypothesis ”, which became the foundation for the concept of the chemical origin of life. [ 6 ] He established human gene maps for hemophilia and color blindness on the X chromosome, and codified Haldane ‘s rule on sterility in the heterogametic arouse of hybrids in species. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] He correctly proposed that sickle-cell disease confers some exemption to malaria. He was the first to suggest the cardinal mind of in vitro fertilization, angstrom well as concepts such as hydrogen economy, commonwealth of independent states and trans-acting regulation, coupling reaction, molecular repulsion, the darwin ( as a unit of measurement of development ) and organismal clone.

Reading: J. B. S. Haldane – Wikipedia

In 1957 he articulated Haldane ‘s dilemma, a restrict on the accelerate of beneficial evolution which subsequently proved incorrect. He willed his soundbox for checkup studies, as he wanted to remain useful even in death. [ 9 ] He is besides remembered for coining the words “ knockoff ” and “ cloning ” in human biology, and “ ectogenesis “. With his sister, Naomi Mitchison, Haldane was the first to demonstrate genetic linkage in mammals. subsequent works established a fusion of mendelian genetics and darwinian evolution by natural excerpt whilst laying the foundation for mod evolutionary synthesis and therefore helped to create population genetics. Haldane was a concede socialistic, Marxist, atheist and humanist whose political protest led him to leave England in 1956 and live in India, becoming a naturalize indian citizen in 1961. Arthur C. Clarke credited him as “ possibly the most bright science popularizer of his genesis ”. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] Nobel laureate Peter Medawar called Haldane “ the cleverest man I ever knew ”. [ 12 ] According to Theodosius Dobzhansky, “ Haldane was constantly recognized as a singular casing ” ; Ernst Mayr described him as a “ polymath ” ; [ 13 ] Michael J. D. White as “ the most erudite biologist of his generation, and possibly of the hundred ” ; [ 14 ] and Sahotra Sarkar as “ credibly the most prescient biologist of this [ 20th ] hundred. ” [ 15 ] According to a Cambridge scholar, “ he seemed to be the last man who might know all there was to be known. ” [ 13 ]

biography

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early life and education

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Haldane was born in Oxford in 1892. His father was John Scott Haldane, a physiologist, scientist, a philosopher and a Liberal who was the grandson of evangelist James Alexander Haldane. [ 16 ] His mother Louisa Kathleen Trotter, was a bourgeois, and descended from scots lineage. His only sibling, Naomi, became a writer and married Dick Mitchison, Baron Mitchison ( thereby becoming Naomi Mary Margaret Mitchison, Baroness Mitchison ), who was his best friend at Eton College. [ 17 ] His uncle was Viscount Haldane and his aunt the generator Elizabeth Haldane. Descended from an aristocratic and laic family [ 18 ] of the Clan Haldane, he would late claim that his Y chromosome could be traced back to Robert the Bruce. [ 19 ] haldane grew up at 11 Crick Road, North Oxford. [ 20 ] He learnt to read at the senesce of three, and at four, after injuring his frontal bone he asked the doctor of the shed blood, “ Is this oxyhemoglobin or carboxyhaemoglobin ? ” As a young person he was raised as an Anglican. [ 21 ] From old age eight he worked with his don in their home testing ground where he experienced his first base self-experimentation, the method acting he would former be celebrated for. He and his father became their own “ human wop pigs ”, such as in their probe on the effects of poison gases. In 1899 his family moved to “ Cherwell ”, a late victorian house at the outskirts of Oxford with its own private lab. [ 22 ] At age 8, in 1901, his father brought him to the Oxford University Junior Scientific Club to listen to a lecture on mendelian genetics, which had been recently rediscovered. [ 23 ] Although he found the lecture given by Arthur Dukinfield Darbishire, Demonstrator of Zoology at Balliol College, Oxford, “ interest but unmanageable, ” [ 11 ] it influenced him permanently such that genetics became the airfield in which he made his most significant scientific contributions. [ 14 ] His formal department of education began in 1897 at Oxford Preparatory School ( now Dragon School ), where he gained a first eruditeness in 1904 to Eton. In 1905 he joined Eton, where he experienced dangerous misuse from aged students for allegedly being arrogant. The nonchalance of authority left him with a lasting hatred for the English education arrangement. however, the ordeal did not stop him from becoming Captain of the school. [ 24 ] He participated for the first time in scientific research as a tennessean capable for his don in 1906. John was the foremost to study the effects of decompression ( easing from high pressure ) in humans. [ 25 ] He investigated the physiological discipline called “ bends, ” such as when goats lift and bend their legs if discomforted, that is besides experienced by deep-sea divers. [ 26 ] In July 1906, on control panel HMS Spanker off the west coast of Scotland, Rothesay, young Haldane jumped into the Atlantic Ocean with the experimental dive suit. The study was published in a 101-paged article in The Journal of Hygiene in 1908 ; where Haldane was described as “ Jack Haldane ( age 13 ) ” for whom it “ was the first gear time [ he ] had always dived in a dive dress. ” [ 26 ] : 436 The inquiry became a foundation for a scientific hypothesis called Haldane ‘s decompression model. [ 27 ] He studied mathematics and classics at New College, Oxford and obtained excellent honours in mathematical moderations in 1912. He became engrossed in genetics and presented a paper on gene linkage in vertebrates in the summer of 1912. His first technical foul newspaper, a 30-page long article on hemoglobin officiate, was published that like year, as a co-author aboard his forefather. [ 28 ] He presented the mathematical discussion of the study on 19 October in the Proceedings of the Physiological Society and was published in December 1913. [ 29 ] Haldane did not want his education to be confined to a particular capable. He took up Greats and graduated with excellent honours in 1914. While he had broad purpose of studying physiology, his plan was, as he described late, “ reasonably overshadowed by other events ” ( referring to World War I ). [ 24 ] His only courtly education in biology was an incomplete naturally in vertebrate anatomy. [ 1 ]

career

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To support the war effort, Haldane volunteered for and joined the british Army, and was commissioned a temp second lieutenant in the 3rd Battalion of the Black Watch ( Royal Highland Regiment ) on 15 August 1914. [ 30 ] He was assigned as the trench mortar military officer, to lead his team for hand-bombing the enemy trenches, the experience of which he remarked “ enjoyable. ” [ 24 ] In his article in 1932 he described how “ he enjoyed the opportunity of killing people and regarded this as a estimable relic of crude man. ” [ 1 ] He was promoted to irregular lieutenant on 18 February 1915 and to impermanent captain on 18 October. [ 31 ] [ 32 ] While serving in France, he was wounded by an artillery fire for which he was sent back to Scotland. There he served as teacher of grenades for the Black Watch recruits. In 1916, he joined the war in Mesopotamia ( Iraq ) where an foe turkey badly wounded him. He was relieved from war fronts and was sent to India and stayed there for the rest of the war. [ 24 ] He returned to England in 1919 and relinquished his commission on 1 April 1920, retaining his rank of captain. [ 4 ] For his ferocity and aggressiveness in battles, his air force officer Douglas Haig described him as the “ bravest and dirtiest policeman in my Army. ” [ 33 ] between 1919 and 1922, he served as Fellow of New College, Oxford, [ 34 ] where he taught and researched in physiology and genetics, despite his lack of formal department of education in the playing field. During his first base class at Oxford, he published six papers dealing with physiology of respiration and genetics. [ 1 ] He then moved to the University of Cambridge, where he accepted a newly created readership in Biochemistry, in 1923 and taught until 1932. [ 18 ] During his nine years at Cambridge, he worked on enzymes and genetics, particularly the mathematical english of genetics. [ 18 ] While working as a visit professor at the University of California in 1932, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society. [ 35 ] Haldane worked part-time at the John Innes Horticultural Institution ( late named John Innes Centre ) at Merton Park in Surrey from 1927 to 1937. [ 36 ] When Alfred Daniel Hall became the Director in 1926, [ 37 ] one of his earliest tasks was to appoint as adjunct director “ a man of high quality in the study of genetics ” who could became his successor. Recommended by julian Huxley, the council appointed Haldane in March 1927, with the terms : “ Mr Haldane to visit the Institution fortnightly for a day and a night during the Cambridge terms, to put in two months besides at Easter and long vacations in two continuous blocks and to be free in the Christmas vacation. ” [ 38 ] He was Officer in charge of genic Investigations. [ 1 ] He became the Fullerian Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution from 1930 to 1932 and in 1933 he became entire Professor of Genetics at University College London, where he spent most of his academic career. [ 39 ] As Hall did not retire a early as expected – retiring in 1939, [ 37 ] Haldane had to resign from the John Innes in 1936 to became the first gear Weldon Professor of Biometry at University College London. [ 18 ] Haldane ‘s service was recorded to have helped the John Innes as “ the liveliest identify for research in genetics in Britain. ” [ 38 ] At the height of World War II, he moved his team to the Rothamsted Experimental Station in Hertfordshire during 1941 to 1944 to escape bombings. [ 1 ] Complying an invitation of Reginald Punnett, who founded the Journal of Genetics in 1910 with William Bateson, he became the editor since 1933 until his death. [ 2 ]

In India

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Marcello Siniscalco (standing) and Haldane in Andhra Pradesh, India, 1964 and Haldane in Andhra Pradesh, India, 1964 In 1956, Haldane left University College London, and joined the indian Statistical Institute ( ISI ) in Calcutta ( subsequently renamed Kolkata ), India, where he worked in the biometrics unit. [ 1 ] Haldane gave many reasons for moving to India. officially he stated that he left the UK because of the Suez Crisis, writing : “ finally, I am going to India because I consider that holocene acts of the british Government have been violations of external law. ” He believed that the warm climate would do him good, and that India shared his socialist dreams. [ 40 ] In an article “ A passage to India ” which he wrote in The Rationalists Annual in 1958, he stated : “ For one thing I prefer indian food to American. possibly my main reason for going to India is that I consider that the opportunities for scientific research of the kind in which I am concerned are better in India than in Britain, and that my teaching will be at least as utilitarian there as here. ” [ 41 ] The university had sacked his wife Helen for being drink and chaotic and refusing to pay a ticket, triggering Haldane ‘s resignation. He declared he would no retentive tire socks, “ Sixty years in socks is adequate. ” [ 42 ] and constantly dressed in indian overdress. [ 11 ] Haldane was keenly concerned in cheap research. Explaining in “ A passage to India, ” he said, “ Of class, if my work required electron microscopes, cyclotrons, and the alike, I should not get them in India. But the sort of facilities which Darwin and Bateson used for their researches—such as gardens, gardeners, pigeon lofts, and pigeons—are more easily obtained in India than in England. ” [ 41 ] He wrote to Julian Huxley about his observations on Vanellus malabaricus, the yellow-wattled lapwing. He advocated the use of Vigna sinensis ( cowpea ) as a model for studying implant genetics. He took an concern in the pollination of Lantana camara. He lamented that indian universities forced those who took up biology to drop mathematics. [ 43 ] He took an sake in the cogitation of floral symmetry. In January 1961 he befriended Gary Botting, the 1960 U.S. Science Fair achiever in fauna ( who had first visited the Haldanes along with Susan Brown, 1960 U.S. National Science Fair winner in botany ), inviting him to partake the results of his experiments hybridising Antheraea silk moths. He, his wife Helen Spurway and scholar Krishna Dronamraju were present at the Oberoi Grand Hotel in Kolkata when Brown reminded the Haldanes that she and Botting had a previously scheduled event that would prevent them from accepting an invitation to a feast proposed by the Haldanes in their honor and had regretfully declined the award. After the two students had left the hotel, Haldane went on his much-publicized hunger hit to protest what he regarded as a “ U.S. insult. ” [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] When the film director of the ISI, P. C. Mahalanobis, confronted Haldane about both the crave strike and the unbudgeted banquet, Haldane resigned from his post ( in February 1961 ), and moved to a newly established biometrics unit in Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa ( Odisha ). [ 40 ] Haldane took amerind citizenship ; he was interest in Hinduism and became a vegetarian. [ 40 ] In 1961, Haldane described India as “ the closest approximation to the Free World. ” Jerzy Neyman objected that “ India has its fair share of scoundrels and a enormous come of poor unreflective and disgustingly slavish individuals who are not attractive. ” [ 47 ] Haldane retorted :

possibly one is freer to be a villain in India than elsewhere. so one was in the U.S.A in the days of people like Jay Gould, when ( in my public opinion ) there was more inner freedom in the U.S.A than there is today. The “ disgusting subservience ” of the others has its limits. The people of Calcutta riot, disquieted tramway, and refuse to obey police regulations, in a manner which would have delighted Jefferson. I do n’t think their activities are very effective, but that is not the motion at topic. [ 48 ]

Marcello Siniscalcoand Haldane in Andhra Pradesh, India, 1964 and Haldane in Andhra Pradesh, India, 1964 In 1956, Haldane left University College London, and joined the indian Statistical Institute ( ISI ) in Calcutta ( subsequently renamed Kolkata ), India, where he worked in the biometrics unit. [ 1 ] Haldane gave many reasons for moving to India. officially he stated that he left the UK because of the Suez Crisis, writing : “ finally, I am going to India because I consider that holocene acts of the british Government have been violations of external law. ” He believed that the warm climate would do him good, and that India shared his socialist dreams. [ 40 ] In an article “ A passage to India ” which he wrote inin 1958, he stated : “ For one thing I prefer indian food to American. possibly my main reason for going to India is that I consider that the opportunities for scientific research of the kind in which I am concerned are better in India than in Britain, and that my teaching will be at least as utilitarian there as here. ” [ 41 ] The university had sacked his wife Helen for being drink and chaotic and refusing to pay a ticket, triggering Haldane ‘s resignation. He declared he would no retentive tire socks, “ Sixty years in socks is adequate. ” [ 42 ] and constantly dressed in indian overdress. [ 11 ] Haldane was keenly concerned in cheap research. Explaining in “ A passage to India, ” he said, “ Of class, if my work required electron microscopes, cyclotrons, and the alike, I should not get them in India. But the sort of facilities which Darwin and Bateson used for their researches—such as gardens, gardeners, pigeon lofts, and pigeons—are more easily obtained in India than in England. ” [ 41 ] He wrote to Julian Huxley about his observations on, the yellow-wattled lapwing. He advocated the use of( cowpea ) as a model for studying implant genetics. He took an concern in the pollination of. He lamented that indian universities forced those who took up biology to drop mathematics. [ 43 ] He took an sake in the cogitation of floral symmetry. In January 1961 he befriended Gary Botting, the 1960 U.S. Science Fair achiever in fauna ( who had first visited the Haldanes along with Susan Brown, 1960 U.S. National Science Fair winner in botany ), inviting him to partake the results of his experiments hybridisingsilk moths. He, his wife Helen Spurway and scholar Krishna Dronamraju were present at the Oberoi Grand Hotel in Kolkata when Brown reminded the Haldanes that she and Botting had a previously scheduled event that would prevent them from accepting an invitation to a feast proposed by the Haldanes in their honor and had regretfully declined the award. After the two students had left the hotel, Haldane went on his much-publicized hunger hit to protest what he regarded as a “ U.S. insult. ” [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] When the film director of the ISI, P. C. Mahalanobis, confronted Haldane about both the crave strike and the unbudgeted banquet, Haldane resigned from his post ( in February 1961 ), and moved to a newly established biometrics unit in Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa ( Odisha ). [ 40 ] Haldane took amerind citizenship ; he was interest in Hinduism and became a vegetarian. [ 40 ] In 1961, Haldane described India as “ the closest approximation to the Free World. ” Jerzy Neyman objected that “ India has its fair share of scoundrels and a enormous come of poor unreflective and disgustingly slavish individuals who are not attractive. ” [ 47 ] Haldane retorted :

When on 25 June 1962 he was described in print as a “ Citizen of the World “ by Groff Conklin, Haldane responded :

No doubt I am in some feel a citizen of the world. But I believe with Thomas Jefferson that one of the chief duties of a citizen is to be a pain to the government of his state. As there is no worldly concern state, I can not do this. On the early bridge player, I can be, and am, a nuisance to the government of India, which has the deservingness of permitting a beneficial deal of criticism, though it reacts to it rather slowly. I besides happen to be proud of being a citizen of India, which is a lot more diverse than Europe, let alone the U.S.A, the U.S.S.R or China, and thus a better exemplary for a potential global organization. It may of course break in up, but it is a fantastic experiment. so, I want to be labeled as a citizen of India. [ 47 ]

personal life

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Haldane was married doubly, first to Charlotte Franken and then to Helen Spurway. [ 49 ] In 1924, Haldane met Charlotte Franken. Franken was a diarist for the Daily Express and married to Jack Burghes. Following the publication of Haldane ‘s Daedalus, or Science and the Future, she interviewed Haldane and they began a relationship. [ 24 ] In holy order to marry Haldane, Franken filed a disassociate lawsuit, which resulted in controversy as Haldane was involved as corespondent in the legal continue. [ 1 ] additionally, as Sahotra Sarkar reported : “ For her to secure a divorce, Haldane overtly committed adultery with her. ” [ 15 ] Haldane ‘s lead was described as “ gross immorality, ” for which he was formally dismissed by Cambridge ‘s Sex Viri ( a six-member disciplinary committee ) from the university in 1925. Cambridge professors, including G. K. Chesterton, Bertrand Russell, and W. L. George, raised their defense for Haldane insisting that the university should not make such judgements, based entirely on a professor ‘s private life. [ 35 ] The ouster was revoked in 1926. Haldane and Charlotte Franken were married in 1926. Following their separation in 1942, the Haldanes divorced in 1945. Later that year he married Helen Spurway, his early PhD student. [ 50 ] Haldane once boasted about himself, saying, “ I can read 11 languages and make populace speeches in three ; but am unmelodious. I am a reasonably competent populace speaker. ” [ 35 ] He had no children, [ 35 ] but he and his beget were crucial influences to his baby Naomi ‘s children, of whom Denis, Murdoch and Avrion Mitchison became professors of biology at the University of London, Edinburgh University, and University College London, respectively. [ 17 ] Inspired by his father, Haldane much used self-experimentation and would expose himself to danger to obtain data. To test the effects of acidification of the blood he drank diluted hydrochloric acid, enclosed himself in an airtight board containing 7 % carbon dioxide, and found that it ‘gives one a rather violent headache ‘. One experiment to study elevated railway levels of oxygen saturation triggered a fit which resulted in him suffering crushed vertebra. [ 51 ] In his decompression chamber experiments, he and his volunteers suffered punch eardrums. But, as Haldane stated in What is Life, [ 52 ] “ the cram broadly heals up ; and if a hole remains in it, although one is slightly deaf, one can blow tobacco smoke out of the ear in interview, which is a social skill. ” [ 53 ] Haldane made himself unpopular among his colleagues from the begin of his academic career. In Cambridge, he annoyed most of the senior faculty due to his uninhibited behavior, particularly at dinner. His enthusiast, Edgar Adrian ( the 1932 Nobel laureate ), had about convinced the university to offer an date as Fellow of Trinity College, but that was ruined by an incident when Haldane arrived at the dining board, carrying a gallon jar of urine from his lab. [ 15 ]

late life and death

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In the fall of 1963, Haldane visited the US for a series of scientific conferences. At the University of Wisconsin, Sewall Wright introduced him before his address, noting many of Haldane ‘s achievements, after which Haldane modestly remarked that the introduction would have been more accurate if all the references to “ Haldane ” were replaced with “ Wright ”. [ 14 ] In Florida, he met, for the first and alone clock time, the russian biochemist Alexander Oparin, who had developed the origin of life hypothesis quite freelancer of his own in the 1920s. It was while there that he started feeling abdominal pains. [ 15 ] Haldane went to London for a diagnosis. He was found to have colorectal cancer, and had a surgery in February 1964. Around that time Philip Dally was making a BBC documentary about eminent living scientists, which included Sewall Wright and the double over Nobel laureate Linus Pauling. Dally ‘s team approached Haldane at the hospital for the documentary profile, but alternatively of a film interview, Haldane gave them a self-obituary, [ 54 ] the opening lines of which run :

I am going to begin with a sport. I believe that I am one of the [ in the first place as “ I am the most ” ] most influential people living today, although I have n’t got a rubbish of power. Let me explain. In 1932 I was the first person to estimate the rate of mutation of a human gene. [ 15 ]

He besides wrote a comic poem while in the hospital, mocking his own incurable disease. It was read by his friends, who appreciated the consistent irreverence with which Haldane had lived his life. The poem foremost appeared in print on 21 February 1964 issue of the New Statesman, and runs : [ 55 ] [ 56 ]

Cancer’s a Funny Thing :
I wish I had the voice of Homer
To sing of rectal carcinoma,
This kills a set more chaps, in fact,
Than were bumped off when Troy was sacked …

The poem ends :

… I know that cancer often kills,
But so bash cars and sleeping pills ;
And it can hurt one cashbox one perspiration,
So can bad teeth and amateur debts.
A spot of laughter, I am certain,
Often accelerates one ‘s cure ;
So let us patients do our morsel
To help the surgeons make us paroxysm .

He willed that his body be used for medical research and teaching [ 57 ] at the Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada. [ 58 ]

My body has been used for both purposes during my life and after my death, whether I continue to exist or not, I shall have no further use for it, and desire that it shall be used by others. Its refrigeration, if this is potential, should be a first agitate on my estate. [ 59 ]

His surgery in London was declared successful. But the symptoms reappeared after returning to India in June, and in August, the indian doctors confirmed that his condition was terminal. Writing to John Maynard Smith on 7 September, he said, “ I am not appreciably upset by the propect of dying fairly soon. But I am very angry [ at the English doctor who performed the operation ]. ” [ 15 ]

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He died on 1 December 1964 in Bhubaneswar. On that day the BBC broadcast his self-obituary as “ Professor J.B.S. Haldane, obituary. ” [ 54 ] [ 60 ]

scientific contributions

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Following his church father ‘s footsteps, Haldane ‘s foremost publication was on the mechanism of gaseous exchange by hemoglobin in The Journal of Physiology, [ 28 ] and he subsequently worked on the chemical properties of blood as a ph cushion. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] He investigated respective aspects of kidney functions and mechanism of elimination. [ 63 ] [ 64 ]

genetic linkage

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In 1904, Arthur Dukinfield Darbishire published a paper on an experiment attempting to test mendelian inheritance between japanese waltz and albino mouse. [ 65 ] When Haldane came across the newspaper, he noticed that Darbishire had overlooked the possibility of familial linkage in the experiment. Having sought advice from Reginald Punnett, a professor of biology at the University of Cambridge, he was ready to write a wallpaper but entirely after an independent experiment. [ 14 ] With his sister Naomi and a supporter Alexander Dalzell Sprunt, one year his senior, he started the experiment in 1908 using guinea pigs and mouse. By 1912, the report was cook. [ 15 ] But the newspaper titled Reduplication in mice was published in the Journal of Genetics only in December 1915 [ 66 ] that became the first demonstration of familial linkage in mammals, showing that certain genetic traits tend to be inherited together ( as was late discovered, because of their proximity on chromosomes ). [ 3 ] ( Between 1912 and 1914, genic linkage had been reported in the yield fly Drosophilla, [ 67 ] silk moth, [ 68 ] and plants. [ 69 ] ) As the newspaper was written during Haldane ‘s avail during World War I, James F. Crow called it “ the most significant skill article ever written in a front-line trench. ” [ 14 ] Haldane himself recalled that he was the “ only military officer to complete a scientific newspaper from a forth position of the Black Watch. ” [ 24 ] As was Haldane, Sprunt had joined 4th Battalion Bedfordshire Regiment at the originate of World War I, and was killed at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle on 17 March 1915. [ 70 ] It was upon this news program that Haldane submitted the wallpaper for publication, in which he remarked : “ Owing to the war it has been necessary to publish prematurely, as unfortunately one of us ( A. D. S. ) has already been killed in France. ” [ 66 ] He was besides the first base to demonstrate linkage in chickens in 1921, [ 71 ] and ( with Julia Bell ) in humans in 1937. [ 72 ]

Enzyme kinetics

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In 1925, with G. E. Briggs, Haldane derived a new interpretation of the enzyme energizing jurisprudence of Victor Henri in 1903, better known as the 1913 Michaelis–Menten equation. [ 73 ] Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten assumed that enzyme ( catalyst ) and substrate ( reactant ) are in fast equilibrium with their complex, which then dissociates to yield product and free enzyme. By contrast, at about the like time, Donald Van Slyke and G. E. Cullen [ 74 ] treated the dressing mistreat as an irreversible reaction. The Briggs–Haldane equality was of the lapp algebraic class as both of the earlier equations, but their derivation is based on the quasi- firm state approximation, which is the concentration of intercede complex ( or complexes ) does not change. As a result, the microscopic mean of the “ Michaelis Constant ” ( Km ) is different. Although normally referring to it as Michaelis–Menten kinetics, most of the current models typically use the Briggs–Haldane ancestry. [ 75 ] [ 76 ]

Haldane ‘s principle

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In his essay On Being the Right Size he outlines Haldane’s principle, which states that the size very much defines what bodily equipment an animal must have : “ Insects, being so little, do not have oxygen-carrying bloodstreams. What fiddling oxygen their cells require can be absorbed by simpleton dispersion of air through their bodies. But being larger means an animal must have complicated oxygen pump and distributing systems to reach all the cells. ” [ 77 ]

lineage of life

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Haldane introduced the modern concept of abiogenesis in an eight-page article titled The origin of life, in The Rationalist Annual in 1929, [ 78 ] describing the primitive ocean as a “ huge chemical testing ground ” containing a mix of inorganic compounds – like a “ hot diluted soup ” in which organic compounds could have formed. Under the solar energy the anoxic standard atmosphere containing carbon dioxide, ammonia water and water vaporization gave rise to a variety of organic compounds, “ live or half-living things ”. The first molecules reacted with one another to produce more complex compounds, and ultimately the cellular components. At some point a kind of “ oily film ” was produced that enclosed self-replicating nucleic acids, thereby becoming the first cell. J. D. Bernal named the hypothesis biopoiesis or biopoesis, the summons of live matter ad lib evolving from self-replicating but lifeless molecules. Haldane further hypothesised that viruses were the average entities between the prebiotic soup and the beginning cells. He asserted that prebiotic life would have been “ in the virus stage for many millions of years before a desirable hookup of elementary units was brought in concert in the beginning cell. ” [ 78 ] The idea was generally dismissed as “ crazy guess ”. [ 79 ] Alexander Oparin had suggested a exchangeable theme in russian in 1924 ( published in English in 1936 ). The hypothesis gained some empiric support in 1953 with the classic Miller–Urey experiment. Since then, the aboriginal soup theory ( Oparin–Haldane guess ) has become the foundation garment in the learn of abiogenesis. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] [ 82 ] Although Oparin ‘s theory became widely known only after the english interpretation in 1936, Haldane accepted Oparin ‘s originality and said, “ I have very little doubt that Professor Oparin has the priority over me. ” [ 83 ]

Malaria and sickle-cell anemia

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Haldane was the beginning to realise the evolutionary link between genetic disorder and infection in humans. While estimating the rates of homo mutation in different situations and diseases, he noted that mutations expressed in crimson blood cells, like thalassemias, were prevailing only in tropical regions where madly infection like malaria has been endemic. He far observed that these were favorable traits ( heterozygous inheritance of sickle cell trait ) for natural choice which protected individuals from receiving malarial infection. [ 84 ] He introduced his guess at the Eighth International Congress of Genetics held in 1948 at Stockholm on a topic “ The Rate of Mutation of Human Genes ”. [ 85 ] He proposed that genetic disorders in humans living in malaria -endemic regions provided a discipline ( phenotype ) that makes them relatively immune to malarial infections. He formalised in a technical paper published in 1949 in which he made a prophetic statement : “ The corpuscles of the anemic heterozygotes are smaller than normal, and more insubordinate to hypotonic solutions. It is at least conceivable that they are besides more immune to attacks by the sporozoa which causal agent malaria. ” [ 86 ] This became known as “ Haldane ‘s malaria guess ”, or concisely, the “ malaria hypothesis ”. [ 87 ] This hypothesis was finally confirmed by Anthony C. Allison in 1954 in the case of sickle-cell anemia. [ 88 ] [ 89 ]

population genetics

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Haldane was one of the three major figures to develop the mathematical hypothesis of population genetics, along with Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright. He therefore played an significant character in the mod evolutionary synthesis of the early twentieth hundred. He re-established lifelike survival as the central mechanism of evolution by explaining it as a numerical consequence of mendelian inheritance. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] He wrote a series of ten papers, A Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection, deriving expressions for the direction and rate of change of gene frequencies, and besides analyzing the interaction of natural excerpt with mutation and migration. The series consists of ten papers published between 1924 and 1934 in journals such as Biological Reviews ( separate II ), Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society ( parts I and from III to IX ) and Genetics ( share X ). [ 92 ] [ 93 ] [ 94 ] He gave a fit of lectures based on this serial at the University of Wales in 1931, and were summarised in a book, The Causes of Evolution in 1932. [ 23 ] His foremost wallpaper on the series in 1924 specifically treats the rate of natural excerpt in pepper moth evolution. He predicted that environmental condition can favour the increase or decline of either the dominant ( in this case the bootleg or melanic forms ) or the recessive ( the grey or baseless character ) moths. For a coal-black environment such as Manchester, where the phenomenon was discovered in 1848, he predicted that the dominant melanic moths will have fifty dollar bill times more survival fitness than the typical gray ones. [ 15 ] According to his estimate, assuming 1 % dominant mannequin in 1848 and about 99 % in 1898, “ 48 generations are needed for the change [ for the dominant to appear ] … After only 13 generations the dominants would be in a majority. ” [ 92 ] such mathematical prediction was considered improbable for natural choice in nature. [ 15 ] But it was subsequently proven by an elaborate experiment ( named Kettlewell ‘s experiment ) performed by an Oxford zoologist Bernard Kettlewell between 1953 and 1958, [ 95 ] [ 96 ] [ 97 ] and further by a Cambridge geneticists Michael Majerus in his experiments conducted between 2001 and 2007. [ 98 ] His contributions to statistical human genetics included : the first methods using maximal likelihood for the estimate of human linkage maps ; pioneering methods for estimating human mutant rates ; the first estimates of mutation rate in humans ( 2 × 10−5 mutations per gene per coevals for the x-linked hemophilia gene ) ; and the first notion that there is a “ cost of natural excerpt ”. [ 99 ] He was the first to estimate the rate of homo mutation in his 1932 koran The Causes of Evolution. [ 100 ] At the John Innes Horticultural Institution, he developed the complicated linkage hypothesis for polyploids ; [ 36 ] [ 101 ] and extended the theme of gene/enzyme relationships with the biochemical and genic survey of establish pigments. [ 102 ] [ 14 ]

political views

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Haldane became a socialistic during the First World War ; supported the Second Spanish Republic during the spanish Civil War ; and then became an open assistant of the Communist Party in 1937. A pragmatic dialectical-materialist marxist, he wrote many articles for the Daily Worker. In On Being the Right Size, he wrote : “ while nationalization of certain industries is an obvious possibility in the largest of states, I find it no easier to picture a wholly socialize british empire or United States than an elephant flex somersaults or a hippopotamus jumping a hedge. ” Haldane has been accused by authors including Peter Wright and Chapman Pincher of having been a soviet GRU spy codenamed Intelligentsia. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] In 1938, he proclaimed enthusiastically that “ I think that Marxism is on-key. ” He joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1942. He was pressed to speak out about the rise of Lysenkoism and the persecution of geneticists in the Soviet Union as anti-Darwinist and the political suppression of genetics as incompatible with dialectic materialism. He shifted his polemicist focus to the United Kingdom, criticizing the addiction of scientific research on fiscal clientele. In 1941 he wrote about the soviet test of his acquaintance and colleague geneticist Nikolai Vavilov :

The controversy among soviet geneticists has been largely one between the academic scientist, represented by Vavilov and interested primarily in the collection of facts, and the man who wants results, represented by Lysenko. It has been conducted not with malice, but in a friendly liveliness. Lysenko said ( in the October discussions of 1939 ) : ‘The important thing is not to dispute ; let us work in a friendly manner on a plan elaborated scientifically. Let us take up definite problems, receive assignments from the People ‘s Commissariat of Agriculture of the USSR and fulfil them scientifically. soviet genetics, as a hale, is a successful attack at synthesis of these two contrasted points of view. ‘

By the end of the Second World War Haldane had become an denotative critic of the government. He left the party in 1950, shortly after considering standing for Parliament as a Communist Party campaigner. He continued to admire Joseph Stalin, describing him in 1962 as “ a very big serviceman who did a very good job ”. [ 33 ]

Social and scientific views

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Human cloning

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Haldane was the foremost to have thought of the genetic footing for human cloning, and the eventual artificial breeding of victor individuals. For this he introduced the terms “ knockoff ” and “ cloning ”, [ 105 ] modifying the earlier “ clone ” which had been used in agribusiness since the early on twentieth century ( from Greek klōn, twig ). He introduced the term in his address on “ biological Possibilities for the Human Species of the Next Ten Thousand Years ” at the Ciba Foundation Symposium on Man and his Future in 1963. He said : [ 106 ]

It is highly bright that some homo cellular telephone lines can be grown on a medium of precisely known chemical constitution. possibly the beginning step will be the production of a clone from a individual fertilize egg, as in Brave New World … On the general principle that men will make all possible mistakes before choosing the correct path, we shall no doubt clone the wrong people [ like Hitler ] … Assuming that cloning is possible, I expect that most clones would be made from people aged at least fifty, except for athletes and dancers, who would be cloned younger. They would be made from people who were held to have excelled in a socially acceptable accomplishment .

Ectogenesis and in vitro fertilization

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His try Daedalus; or, Science and the Future ( 1924 ) posited the concept of in vitro fertilization which he called ectogenesis. He envisioned ectogenesis as a tool for creating better individuals ( eugenics ). [ 107 ] Haldane ‘s workplace was an determine on Huxley ‘s Brave New World ( 1932 ) and was besides admired by Gerald Heard. [ 108 ] Various essays on skill were collected and published in a volume titled Possible Worlds in 1927. His book, A.R.P. (Air Raid Precautions) ( 1938 ) combined his physiological research into the effects of stress upon the homo body with his experience of vent raids during the spanish Civil War to provide a scientific account of the probable effects of the breeze raids that Britain was to endure during the second World War .

criticism of C.S. Lewis

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Along with Olaf Stapledon, Charles Kay Ogden, I. A. Richards and H. G. Wells, Haldane was accused by C. S. Lewis of scientism. Haldane criticised Lewis and his Ransom Trilogy for the “ complete mischaracterisation of skill, and his disparagement of the human slipstream ”. [ 109 ] Haldane wrote a book for children titled My Friend Mr Leakey ( 1937 ), containing the stories “ A Meal With a sorcerer ”, “ A Day in the Life of a magician ”, “ Mr Leakey ‘s Party ”, “ Rats ”, “ The Snake with the Golden Teeth ”, and “ My Magic Collar Stud ” ; later editions featured illustrations by Quentin Blake. He besides wrote an essay criticising Lewis ‘s arguments for the universe of God, entitled “ More Anti-Lewisite ”, a mention to the poison accelerator and its antidote. [ 110 ]

Hydrogen-generating windmills

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In 1923, in a talk given in Cambridge titled “ Science and the future ”, Haldane, foreseeing the exhaustion of ember for power coevals in Britain, proposed a network of hydrogen -generating windmills. This is the first proposal of the hydrogen-based renewable department of energy economy. [ 111 ] [ 112 ] [ 113 ]

Scientists

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In his An Autobiography in Brief, published concisely before his death in India, Haldane named four close associates as showing promise to become celebrated scientists : T. A. Davis, Dronamraju Krishna Rao, Suresh Jayakar and S. K. Roy. [ 114 ]

Awards and honours

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Haldane was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1932. [ 39 ] The french Government conferred him its National order of the Legion of Honour in 1937. In 1952, he received the Darwin Medal from the Royal Society. In 1956, he was awarded the Huxley Memorial Medal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain. He received the Feltrinelli Prize from Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in 1961. He besides received an honorary doctor’s degree of Science, an honorary company at New College, Oxford, and the Kimber Award of the US National Academy of Sciences. He was awarded the Linnean Society of London ‘s prestigious Darwin–Wallace Medal in 1958. [ 58 ]

bequest

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The Haldane Lecture at the John Innes Centre, [ 115 ] where Haldane worked from 1927 to 1937 is named in his honor. [ 38 ] The JBS Haldane Lecture [ 116 ] of The Genetics Society is besides named in his honor. Haldane was parodied as an obsessional self-experimenter, described as “ the biologist excessively absorbed in his experiments to notice his friends bedding his wife ” by his supporter Aldous Huxley in the fresh Antic Hay ( 1923 ). [ 117 ]

Quotations

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  • He is famous for the (possibly apocryphal) response that he gave when some theologians asked him what could be inferred about the mind of the Creator from the works of His Creation: “An inordinate fondness for beetles.”[118][119] or sometimes, “….stars and beetles.”[120]
  • “My own suspicion is that the universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose.”[121]
  • “It seems to me immensely unlikely that mind is a mere by-product of matter. For if my mental processes are determined wholly by the motions of atoms in my brain I have no reason to suppose that my beliefs are true. They may be sound chemically, but that does not make them sound logically. And hence I have no reason for supposing my brain to be composed of atoms.”[121] : 209
  • “Teleology is like a mistress to a biologist: he cannot live without her but he’s unwilling to be seen with her in public.”[122][123]
  • “I had gastritis for about fifteen years until I read Lenin and other writers, who showed me what was wrong with our society and how to cure it. Since then I have needed no magnesia.”[124]
  • “I suppose the process of acceptance will pass through the usual four stages: (i) This is worthless nonsense; (ii) This is an interesting, but perverse, point of view; (iii) This is true, but quite unimportant; (iv) I always said so.”[125]
  • “Three hundred and ten species in all of India, representing two hundred and thirty-eight genera, sixty-two families, nineteen different orders. All of them on the Ark. And this is only India, and only the birds.”[126]
  • “The stupidity of the mynah shows that in birds, as in men, linguistic and practical abilities are not very highly correlated. A student who can repeat a page of a text book may get first class honours, but may be incapable of doing research.”[127]
  • When asked whether he would lay down his life for his brother, Haldane, presaging Hamilton’s rule, supposedly replied “two brothers or eight cousins”.[128]

Publications

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See besides

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References

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Citations

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further recitation

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