History of cloning 1952-2000

  

~5000 B.C. Early Animal Husbandry (taking care of animals) shows that breeding for specific traits is successful for creating herds of cattle that have desirable traits.
Early humans also discover that if they plant seeds produced by the heartiest plants, the next crop will be a strong one. This is the first step in manipulating life to suit human needs, which is the ultimate goal of cloning.

1322
Arab chieftains first use artificial insemination to produce superior horses.

1891
Walter Heap performs the first successful Embryo Transfer in England with rabbits.
 

 
 

1902
Hans Spemann uses a hair from his infant son as a knife to separate a 2-celled embryo from a salamander, which grows externally, and later a 16-celled embryo, all of which develop into adult salamanders.
Hans Spemman

In 1952, a tiny tadpole makes history as the
first successfully cloned animal. Robert Briggs and Thomas King create
tadpoles from embryonic cells that are identical to the original

 

In 1963 (the year I was born!) Biologist J.B.S. Haldane coined the term “clone” in a speech entitled “Biological Possibilities for the Human Species of the Next Ten-Thousand Years.”
JBS HALDANE

 
 

 
 

Cloning
begins to move to the molecular level with the cloning of genes. Scientists
first isolate the gene, then bind it to an organism that incorporates the
gene inot its own DNA and then multiplies, producing may copies of the
gene inserted. In 1972 this was done with yeast cells.

 

 

 

 

 

 


In 1976, Rudolf Jaenisch of the Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA, injects human
DNA into newly fertilized mouse eggs to produce mice that are part human,
called transgenic mice. When the mice reproduce, they pass their human
genetic material to their offspring, creating a slew of these mice. Different
human diseases can be studied by creating mice with the desired human genetic
condition that we want to study.

 



 

In 1978, the world’s first test tube baby is conceived through in-vitro
fertilization. Using the Husband’s sperm, British doctors fertilize and
egg in a petri dish, then implant the embryo in the healthy mother’s (
or surrogate mother’s) uterus

 

 

 

1980 In the case Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the United States Supreme Court ruled that a “live, human made microorganism is patentable material.”
 

 
1990 The National Institutes of Health officially launched the Human Genome Project to locate the (estimated) 50,000 to 100,000 genes and sequence the estimated 3 billion nucleotides of the human genome.

 
 

 
 

Dolly the
sheep was born July 5th, 1996. She was the first mammal cloned from a cell of
an adult animal, not an embryo. She wasn’t revealed to the world until
February 1997 by embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin
Institute in Scotland. She was cloned from a cell taken from the udder
of an adult ewe. In response to public concern, President Bill Clinton
issues a moratorium on the use of federal funds for human cloning research.

 

 

 

In 1998, scientists
at the University of Hawaii clone more than 50 mice from adult cells, creating
three generations of identical lab animals. During this same year, several
independent teams of researchers successfully clone calves using differing
techniques. In Japan, researchers produce eight genetically identical calves
from the biopsied cells of an adult cow with a success rate of 80 percent,
the most efficient cloning experiment to date.

 

In 2000, Oregon researchers reveal the existence of Tetra the cloned monkey.
The rhesus macaque was cloned using a very different method than Dolly.
Tetra was a naturally created clone, she has both a mother and a father.
She was made by splitting a very early embryo (the eight cell stage) into
four pieces. These were then nurtured inot new embryos, but only one survived-Tetra.
The company that produced Dolly unveiled a litter of five cloned piglets.
They say this could lead to herds of cloned pigs that could one day provide
a genetically engineered source of organ transplants for humans.I

 

 

 

 

In August, researchers at the University of Tennessee announced they
had cloned a dairy cow using a method easier and quicker than the patented
process that produced Dolly and other animals. They collected ovarian cells
from one cow, and removed DNA from the egg of another cow, then joined
the ovarian cell with the remaining egg cytoplasm, using a technique called
electrofusion. This resulted in an embryo that began development with DNA
entirely from Teresa, the ovarian cell donor. Millennium, the cloned calf
was born at full term, weighing 62 pounds on August 23.

2001 —
U.S. fertility specialist Panayiotis Zavos and a team of international scientists announced in March that hundreds of couples had volunteered for an experiment to create cloned children. The team said it was poised to help infertile couples bear clones as early as 2003.
     

Synthetic DNA is proposed and it is posited that synthetic chromosomes and even sythetic cells are in the future.
Additionally, Britain became the first country to effectively legalize the cloning of human embryos in January, when the government approved a controversial measure aimed at allowing research on stem cells found in embryos. The clones created under the new regulations would have to be destroyed after 14 days, and the creation of babies by cloning would remain outlawed.

2002

2002 — CopyCat
Texas A&M researchers announce in February that they have cloned a domestic cat for the first time. The calico-and-white female — named “cc,” for “CopyCat” — is a twin of her genetic “mother,” but her fur has a different pattern because of developmental factors. The advance marks another step toward the routine cloning of household pets.
 

2003- The Human Genome project is completed, 2 full years ahead of proposed schedule. Roughly 25,000 genes are found with most chromosomes possessing over 25 million nucleotides. The most are found in Chromosome 1, the largest chomosome, at 250 million nucletides.

2003

2003 — Horsing around
In August, Italian scientists say they have created the world’s first cloned horse, Prometea, from an adult cell taken from the horse who gave birth to her. Earlier in the year, six-year-old Dolly the sheep, the world’s first cloned mammal, is given a lethal injection after signs of progressive lung disease are discovered.

2004

2004 — Therapeutic cloning
Fertility expert Dr. Panayiotis Zavos says he has transferred a cloned human embryo into a woman. He later announces that the experiment failed.

 

South Korean and U.S. researchers say they have cloned a human embryo and extracted from it sought-after cells called embryonic stem cells. The experiment is the first published report of cloned human stem cells and means so-called therapeutic cloning is no longer a theory but a reality. Not ready for prime-time…. scientific process in action

2008–Dr. Samuel Wood clones himself. Using nuclear transfer technology, Dr. wood takes his DNA from his skin cells and places it into the donated enucleated human egg. The cloned cells lived 5 days.

2010 the first synthetic Cell created from synthetic DNA

2013 – Human embryonic stem cells created by somatic cell nuclear transfer

 

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